THE FREEDOM STRUGGLE-10th Standard Social Science Notes

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Chapter 8

THE FREEDOM STRUGGLE

Key Points

1. 1885 : Establishment of Indian National Congress

2. 1905 : Partition of Bengal

3. 1911 : Withdraw of Partition of Bengal

4. 1919 : Rowlatt Act

5. 1919 : Jallian wallah Bagh tragedy

6. 1920 : Gandhiji gave a call for a non Co-operation movement

7. 1922 : Chowri Chowra Incident

8. 1922 : Establishment of Swaraj Party by C R Das and Motilal Nehru

9. 1927 : Simon Commission

10. 1929 : Lahore Congress Session

11. 1930 : Jan 1 1930 J. Nehru hoisted Tricolour on the banks of river Ravi.

12. 1930 : Civil Disobedience Movement salt satyagraha

13. 1931 : Gandhi Irwin Pact

14. 1932 : Third Round Table Conference

15. 1942 : Strafford Kripps came to India

16. 1942 Aug 08 : Quit India Movement

17. 1946.16Aug : Direct Action Day

18. 1948 Jan30 : Gandhiji was assassinated

I. Choose correct Answer

1. Founder of the Indian National Congress was

a) Mahathma Gandiji b) A.O.Hume c) Balagangadhara Tilak d) Gopalkrishna Gokhale

2. Publisher of „Maratha‟ Paper was

a) Jawahar lal Neharu b) Ras Bihari Boss c) Balagangadhara Tilak d) V.D.Saverkar

3. Swaraj Party was established in the year

a) 1924 b) 1922 c) 1929 d) 1906

4. President of Indian National Congress Haripura session was

a) Sardar valbha Bhai Patel b) Dr. B.R.Ambedkar c) Lal Lajapath Rai d) Subhashchandra Bose

5. Iron man of India

a) Bhagat Sing b) Chandrashekar Azad c) Abul Kalam Azad d) Sardar Valbahi Patel

6. Domestic papers control Act was Introduced by

a)Lord Cornwallies b)Lord Lytton  b)Lord Dallhousie d)Lord Canning

7. Domestic papers control Act was Introduced

a)1878 b)1888 c)1875 d)1885

8. Indian National congress was established in the year

a)1886 b)1868 c)1885 d)1885

9. Bengal was Partitioned by

a)Lord Rippen b)Lord Simon c)Lord Curzon d)Lord William

10. Partition of Bengal was withdrew by British Government in

a)1914 b)1911 c)1915 d)1929

11. The Act gave the judges power to arrest and interrogate people based on more

Suspicion was

a)Pitts India Act b)Rowlatt Act c)Hunter Commission d)Satygraha

12. Non Co-Operation Movement started in

a)1920 b)1929 c)1928 d)1919

13. Swaraj Party was established by

a)Subhash Chandra Bose b)V.D Savarkar c)Lala Lajpat Rai d)Chittaranjan Das

14. The Commission appointed by the British Government in 1927 was a)Simon Commission b)Hunter Commission c)Kripp‟s Commission d)Irwin‟s Commission

15. The first Round Table Conference was held in

a)1930 b)1942 c)1932 d)1906

16. “Do or Die” Call was given by

a)Nehru b)Tilak c)Gandhiji d)Patel

17. Swaraj is my birthright and I will get it at any cost was declared by

a)Subhashchandra Bose b)Gandhiji c)C.R Das d)Tilak

18. Netaji left congress and established a Separate Party Called

a)National front b)Forward Block c)Indian Block d)Swaraj Party

19. Dr.B R Ambedkar strongly believed that political Independence was eaningless without Independence

a)Political b)Economical c)Social d)Cultural

20. The Chairman of the Constitution Draft Committee

a)Babu Rajendra Prasad b)Jawahar lal Nehru

c)Dr.B.R.Ambedkar d)C.Rajagopalachari

21. Nehru was the President of Lahore Convention in

a)1928 b)1929 c)1930 d)1919

21. The Muslim league gave a call to observe 16th August as

a)Police Action Day b) Do or Dia c)Direct Action Day d)Direct Attack Day

22. The President of the constituent Assembly

a)Dr.Babu Rajendra Prasad b)Dr.B R Ambedkar c)Lord Mount batten d)Vallabhabhai Patel

23. Sadarvallabhabhai Patel was popularly Know as

a)”Muscle Man” b) Father of Nation c)Iron Man d)Bharat Ratna

24. India Independence Bill was passed in

a)1947 Aug b)1947July c)1947Nov d)1947 June

25. After II world war the Party came to power was

a) Labour Party b) Republic Party c)Ruling Party d)Democrate Party

II Fill in the blanks with suitable words:

1. The Indian National Congress was established in the year 1885

2. The person who talked about the „Wealth Drain‟ was Dadabhai Naoroji

3. „Swarajya was my birth right‟ was declared by Balagangadar Tilak

4. The Ali brothers started the Khilafat movement.

5. Separate nation for Muslims was proposed by Mohd Ali Jinnah

6. The Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress that took place in 1929 was presided by Jawaharlal Nehru

7. The person who started „Mahad‟ and „Kalaram‟ temple movements was Dr.B.R.Ambedkar

8. The Jhansi regiment of Indian National Army was leaded by Captain Lakshmi

9. The place where Gandhiji carried out the Salt Satyagraha Was Dandi

10. Quit India movement was carried out in the year1942

11. The British Government declared the Supremacy of the Queen in 1858

12. One group of congress called mild attitude of moderates as Political Beggars.

13. Aurobindo Ghosh Published a book Vartman Rananiti

14. General dyer arrived at Jallanwallah Bagh and attacked the protestors.

15. The government appointed Hunter Commission to conduct an enquire into the Jalianwallah Bagh tragedy.

16. C.R Das was know as Deshbandhu

17. Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das along with some congress man established Swaraj Party in 922.

18. Lala lajpat Rai was died after being injured in police caning.

19. At Lahore congress session congress declared that their aim was Purna swaraj.

20. Muslim league did not participate in Quit India movement and celebrated Vimukti Divas.

21. Dr. B.R Ambedkar was diwan in the court of the maharaja of Baroda.

III. Match the following

1. Subhash Chandra Bose a) Partition of Bengal d

2. Lord Curzon b) Ilbert Bill a

3. Barinder Kumar Ghosh c) Bahish kruta hitarakshana e

4. Lord Rippon d) Forward Block b

5. Dr.B.R Ambedkar e) Yugantar c

IV Discuss the following in groups and answer them:

1. Which were the organizations in India before the establishment of the Indian

National Congress?

„The Hindu Mela‟, „The East India Association‟, „Poona Sarvajanik Sabha‟ and „The Indian Association‟ were prominent.

2. What were the demands put forward by moderates to the British?

  • development of industries,
  • reduction of military expenses, improvement in educational standards, forcing the British government to take up studies about poverty in the country etc.

3. Analyse the theory of wealth drain.

  • Dadabhai Naoroji explained about the transfer of Indian wealth to England and called it „Drain Theory‟.
  • He maintained that encouraging imports and reducing exports created a situation unfavorable to India, leading to drain of wealth.
  • Since India had to bear the burden of paying wages, pension and Administrative expenses of British officials, a lot of wealth was flowing into England.

4. Name the revolutioneries in freedom movement.

V.D.Savarkar, Aurobindo Ghosh, Shyam KrishnaVerma, Ras Bihari Ghose, Madame Cama, Khudiram Bose, Ramaprasad Bismil, Bhagat Singh and Chandrashekar Azad were prominent revolutionary leaders.

5. Explain the role of Balagangadhar Tilak in the freedom struggle.

  • Tilak declared: “Swaraj is my birthright and I will get it at any cost”.
  • They started preparing the common people forfreedom struggle.
  • Through religious functions they started rganizing people for a freedom movement.
  • Lokamanya Tilak utilized his „Kesari‟ in Marathi and „Maratha‟ newspaper in English for freedom struggle.
  • Through these papers he called for the active participation in the fight for freedom.
  • He was imprisoned for his revolutionary articles and enquiries were instituted against him.

6. What were the reasons for partition of Bengal?

  • Bengal was the centre of protests and anti- British sentiments. In order to curb this, Viceroy Lord Curzon proposed a plan to divide Bengal citing administrative problems.
  • East and West Bengal based on Muslim and Hindu population were created.
  • Thus, by creating differences between the two communities, they tried to reduce the intensity of freedom struggle.

7. Describe Chowri-Chowra incident.

  • At Chowri-Chowra in Uttar Pradesh. In the year 1922, police used their force against peaceful protestors.
  • Enraged by this, the people tried to enter the police stations.
  • Police resorted to firing. When their ammunition got exhausted, the police ran into the station.
  • The angry protestors set the police station on fire.
  • About 22 police were burnt alive inside the station. This incident is termed Chowri-Chowra incident in history.

8. What were the reasons for the Indians boycotting the Simon Commission?

  • In 1927, the British Government appointed the Simon Commission under the leadership of John Simon.
  • This commission did not have a single Indian as the member.
  • Treating it as an insult to India, the Congress boycotted the Simon Commission.
  • There were widespread demonstrations during the visit of Simon to India.
  • The people started shouting „Simon, Go back‟. Wherever the Simon Commission went,

9. Describe the Salt Satyagraha.

  • Gandhiji, after assuming the leadership of Civil disobedience movement, submitted a Charter of 11 demands to Viceroy Irwin.
  • He had conveyed that if these demands were not met, he would start Civil Disobedience movement.
  • One of the demands was abolition of tax imposed on salt.
  • But Irwin did not consider Gandhiji‟s demands.
  • As a result, in the year 1930, Gandhiji travelled from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi
  • in Surat on foot with his followers to produce salt in the seashore.
  • In this manner, he started the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • This event in history is popular as „Dandi March‟.

10. Explain the contributions of Nehru after becoming Prime Minister.

  • Nehru laid the foundation for Indian democracy by reorganizing all the states on the basis of language.
  • A mixed economic system which had principles of both capitalism and socialism was his contribution to modern India.
  • He believed that growth was possible through intense industrialization.
  • He was the pioneer who envisaged the development of India through five-year plans. With regard to foreign policy, India abandoned the polemic stand of the two groups and advocated Non-alignment policy.
  • On the basis of Panchasheel principles, he remained away from power politics and aimed to implement the formula of peace and harmony.

11. What were the reasons for the failure of the Quit India movement?

  • The British Government in the year 1942 sent Strafford Kripps to India for peace talks.
  • Kripps‟ Commission put forward certain suggestions in front of Indians.
  • Givingdominion status to India, forming a Constituent Assembly for the purpose, and giving freedom to the states to either join or remain out of the Union were some of the suggestions.
  • These suggestions werenot acceptable to Congress. On the 8th of August 1942, the Congress started the Quit India Movement.
  • Gandhiji gave a call to the Indians to „Do or Die‟.
  • In this context, many leaders like Gandhiji, Nehru, Rajendra Prasad, Abul Kalam Azad,
  • Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Acharya Quit India Movement Vallabhbhai Patel Abul Kalam, Azad Kripalani, Kasturba Gandhi and others were imprisoned.
  • Since most of the Congress leaders were in jail.

12. Name the revolutionaries who took part in the Indian freedom struggle.

Prominent among them was Aurobindo Ghosh.

13. Name the extremists who were prominent in the freedom struggle.

Aurobindo Ghosh, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal and Balgangadhara Tilak were the prominent extremist leaders.

14. What was the result of the second Round Table Conference?

  • As per this agreement, out of the existing constituencies, some were reserved for dalits.
  • In such places, only dalit leaders had filed nomination as representatives of all people.
  • Instead of a separate constituency, some areas were reserved for the dalits.

15. Give an account of the achievements of Subhash Chandra Bose in the independence struggle.

  • Subhash Chandra Bose was engaged in the attempt to organize Indians settled abroad and equip them for fighting against the British.
  • He travelled to Vienna, Berlin, Rome, Istanbul and other countries and inspired the Indians there to support their motherland.
  • Desiring to join hands with the enemies of the British, and thereby defeat the British, Subhash Chandra Bose escaped from house- arrest and left for Germany.
  • He gained the support of the German dictator,Hitler to make India free.
  • He tried to establish an army with the help of Indian war criminals in Germany. Through Azad Hind Radio.
  • He joined hands with Ras Behari Bose who had organized Indians to fight depending on the fate of Japan in the war.
  • Ras Behari Bose has established the military wing of the Indian Independence League at Tokyo and named it Indian National Army.
  • In this manner, Subhash had planned a military strategy through Rangoon to capture Delhi which was in the clutches of the British.
  • By that time, thousands of soldiers of the INA had prepared themselves to occupy Delhi. Towards this end, as per Netaji‟s command, they began an armed attack on the Burma border.
  • Ras Behari Bose has established the military wing of the Indian Independence League at Tokyo and named it Indian National Army.
  • Later, he gave up the leadership of the INA to Subhash Chandra Bose. At this juncture, Subhash Chandra Bose gave the call “Delhi Chalo!” He urged the Indians:
  • “Give me blood, I will give you freedom!” There was a ladies wing in the INA named Jhansi Regiment.
  • Captain Lakshmi was the Commandant of this regiment.

16. Describe the tribal revolts in the Indian freedom struggle.

  • The Tax and Forest Act implemented by the British East India Company provoked the tribal revolt.
  • Of the tribal rebellions, the Santala‟s revolt and Munda movement are prominent.
  • In this regard, the Halagali Hunters rebellion in Karnataka is noteworthy.
  • The Santala tribal revolt can be termed India‟s first movement.
  • These tribals lived in Bengal and Orissa hillocks.
  • When the permanent landlord system was brought into force by the British, the people of this community became destitutes.
  • Their lands went to the landlords. The landlords, money-lenders and the British overnment behaved in a way that triggered intolerance in the Santalas.
  • The Company exploited the decency and peace-loving attitude of the Santalas.
  • Enraged by this, the Santalas held secret meetings and decided to loot the landlords and prominent citizens.
  • The agitation became intense in Barahat area and also in Bhagatpur and ajamahal.
  • The rioters killed their enemies. As a result, the landlords and money-lenders ran away.
  • The government used the army to stem the revolt and was successful.
  • Many rioters were arrested.
  • Although the revolt by the Santalas ended, it lent its voice to many similar protests later.

17. Bristly explain about Esoor incident

  • Essor is a village near Shikaripura in the Mysoreprovince. During the independence struggle, this village was named „Swatantra Halli‟.
  • Here everybody wore the Gandhi cap.
  • The villagers prohibited officials from entering the village, but, those officials who visited the village in 1942 were forced by the activists to wear the cap.
  • The Sub-inspector who was with the officials protested against this and fired at he crowd.
  • The enraged people killed him. Historically, this incident is referred to as „Esoor ncident‟.

18. What is satyagraha?

Gandhiji succeeded in using satyagraha to fight against the apartheid policy in Africa. He used the same weapon in the Indian freedom struggle He maintained that satyagraha was not a way to apply physical pressure on anyone but a struggle accompanied by self-respect.

19. Name the Various newspaper published by Dr.B.R.Ambedkar

He published various newspapers like „Prabuddha Bharata‟, „Janata‟, Mukanayaka‟ nd „Bahishkruta Bharata‟.

20. What was the Method used by the Revolutionaries?

The revolutionaries dreamt of a totally free India. They strongly believed that the British could be thrown out of India only by violent means. They started establishing their secret branches in India and abroad, and engaged in collection of money, arms and training of people.

Activity :

21. Write an essay on Dr.B.R.Ambedkar

  • Dr.B.R.Ambedkar strongly believed that political independence was meaningless without social independence.
  • He maintained that if a person from the lowest of the low classes did not get socialand economic freedom, political freedom did not matter at all; it remained only a mirage.
  • He did not see India as only a non-living political
  • Dr.B.R.Ambedkar entity, but as one which had a living side to it, with feelings and emotions too.
  • He carried out a study of the caste system and came up with a plan to eradicate it.
  • In order to prove that the untouchables had been denied basic facilities, he started Mahad‟ and „Kalaram‟ temple movements.
  • He attended the three Round Table Conferences and gave valuable suggestions.
  • Differences of opinion surfaced between Gandhiji and Ambedkar with regard to the leadership of untouchables and upliftment of Harijans.
  • The demand for a separate electoral constituency for untouchables brought about
  • a conflict between Gandhiji and Ambedkar.
  • Ambedkar was a diwan in the court of the Maharaja of Baroda.
  • He carried out his responsibilities as a member of the Mumbai Legislative Council and, later, Viceroy Executive Council, with great meticulousness.
  • Ambedkar did not join the Congress party. Instead, he established an organization „Bahishkruta Hitakarini Sabha‟ and two separate parties named „Swatantra Karmika Party‟ and „Republican Party of India‟.
  • He published various newspapers like „Prabuddha Bharata‟, „Janata‟, Mukanayaka‟ and „Bahishkruta Bharata‟.
  • He stayed away from Communist and Socialist approaches, and worked towards
  • progress of agricultural labourers.
  • The constitution was framed as a guiding force for independent India.
  • Dr.Babu Rajendra Prasad was chosen as the President of the Constituent Assembly.
  • Later, Dr.B.R.Ambedkar was unanimously chosen as the Chairman of Do you know this? “A leader without newspapers is like a bird without wings.” Dr.B.R.Ambedkar the Constitution Draft Committee.
  • He advocated equality in the constitution and gave legal protection against practice of untouchability.
  • The Indian Constitution considers practice of untouchability a crime.
  • After independence, Dr.B.R.Ambedkar became the Law Minister.
  • Though he had been inspired by modernism, intellectualism and western philosophy, Ambedkar remained faithful to his native principles.
  • Frustrated by the caste system, he gave up Hinduism and embraced Buddhism.
  • He believed that the same change that Marxism brought about through violence and bloodshed, could be brought about by non-violence and peace through Buddhism.
  • He was posthumously awarded the „Bharat Ratna‟ for his lifetime achievements.

22. Explain the achievement of J.L.Nehru.

  • We see Prime Minister Nehru as the architect of industrialization and modern India.
  • He also supervised, under the leadership of Home Minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel who was popularly known as „Iron Man‟, to bring together all the princely states and merge them with the Union of India.
  • Later, Nehru laid the foundation for Indian democracy by reorganizing all the states on the basis of language.
  • A mixed economic system which had principles of both capitalism and socialism was his contribution to modern India.
  • He believed that growth was possible through intense industrialization.
  • He was the pioneer who envisaged the development of India through five-year plans.
  • With regard to foreign policy, India abandoned the polemic stand of the two groups and advocated Non-alignment policy.
  • On the basis of Panchasheel principles, he remained away from power politics and aimed to implement the formula of peace and harmony.
  • He died in 1964.

23. Explain the Achivements of Mohammed Ali Jinnah

  • Mohammad Ali Jinnah joined Indian National Congress in 1906 and worked as private secretary to Dadabhai Naoroji.
  • He defended Tilak in court cases where he was accused of provoking unrest, and this brought him great appreciation.
  • He joined Jinnah and Gandhiji Home Rule League movement.
  • In many conferences that took place in 1916, he spoke about the need for unity between Hindus and Muslims.
  • Since he was being seen as a pro-Muslim politician, he opposed the British legacy.
  • Condemning the Rowlatt Act, he resigned from his post in the Central Legal Advisory Committee.
  • He declared that he was a nationalist Muslim in the Round Table Conferences. When in 1937, the Congress and the Muslim League failed in forming the government after the elections, he changed his strategy. As the days of declaration of freedom for India neared, he intensified his demand for Pakistan in many ways.
  • He was successful in dividing the nation during the time of Independence.

24. Explain the Achivements of Jayaprakash Naryan.

  • Jayaprakash Narayan assumed leadership of the movement. He was a prominent leader of the Socialist wing of the Congress.
  • He carried out many revolutionary activities along with his followers throughout India.
  • The Socialists implemented their plans through a group titled „The Freedom Struggle Front‟.
  • Through that organization, they imparted training to workers. They urged the people to participate in the freedom struggle.
  • They collected funds, and gave a proper direction to the movement.

25. Explain the Farmers and Labours protests Farmers protests

  • In the freedom struggle, farmers and labour organizations have also played a prominent role.
  • Some of the organizations were influenced by the Congress, while others followed Marxist principles.
  • During the British rule, farmers in many places, revolted against landlords and European planters.
  • They refused to grow indigo in Champaranya district. They staged agitations against land tax.
  • Gandhiji persuaded the British to abolish tax through satyagraha.
  • As a part of the national freedom struggle, the Congress tried to organize the farmers.
  • Gandhiji had influence over the activities of farmers in Champaranya, Kheda and other areas.
  • Influenced by the Indian National Congress, the farmers who were oppressed in
  • the areas of Tebhag, Malabar etc. rose in revolt against landlords and the British.
  • The farmers‟ problems merged with the non-co- operation movement, Civil Disobedience and Quit India movements.
  • Many protests were organized under the banner of Kisan Sabha which was founded on leftist principles.
  • The protests used to be pro-Congress and, at times, anti-Congress.
  • The Telangana farmers‟ revolt challenged the Andhra Reddy landlords and the Nizam‟s Razaks.
  • Bengali farmers revolted against the exploitation by landlords. In Maharashtra, the farmers protested against low wages.
  • Labours Revolt
  • The labour movement started in Calcutta in the year 1827.
  • People started getting organized to fight for their rights in jute and textiles industries and the railways.
  • The railway porters staged agitation in railway stations by shouting slogans and demanded higher wages from the British officials.
  • The Printers‟ Union of Calcutta and the Bombay textile workers created national awareness.
  • The Madras Labour Union was established. Subsequently, many labour unions were born.
  • The Congress supported these movements of the labour organizations.
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