Chapter - 7
EFFECTS OF BRITISH RULE IN INDIA
I. Choose the correct answer from the following alternative.
1. Zamindari system was implemented by
a)Alexander reid b)Lord cornwallies c)R M Barid d)William Bentinck
2. Mahalwari system was introduced by
a) Alexander and Thomas Munro b) William Bentinck & Cornwallis
c) R M Barid and James Thompson d) Lord Macaulay and William Bentinck
3. Lord William Bentinck said the foundalisis for English Education as recommended by
a)Lord Macaulay b)Munro c)Dalhousie d)Cornwallis
4. Public education department was started on the advise of
a)Lord Macaulay b)Charles wood c)Lord Curzon d)Chemlsward
5. The first train link started in the year
a)1835 b)1385 c)1853 d)1857
6. The first Railway line was started between
a)Calcutta & Bombay b)Calcutta and Ranigunj c)Bangalore to Madras d)Mumbai and Thane
II. Fill in the blanks
1. The first Indian newspaper was The Bengal Gazette .
2. The Bengal Gazette was started in 1780.
3. Balagangadhara Tilak started the weekly magazines kesari in Marathi and Maratha in English.
4. Mahal means Taluk
5. The first newspaper in Kannada was Mangalore Samachar.
6. The Bengal Gazettte was started by James August Haiki.
7. The Bengal Gazette was also called as Culcutta General Advertiser.
8. In 1860 Indigo former revolt was supported by Soma Prakash News paper
III. Match the following Ans
1. Digdarshan a) Surendranath Bannerjee d
2. Soma Prakash b) Ram Mohan Roy e
3. The Bengali c) Moegling Missionary a
4. Samvadad Kaumudi d) Monthly Journal b
5. Mangalore Samachar e) Eshwar Chandra vidyasagar c
IV. Discuss the following in groups and write the answers:
1. How did the uniform system of administration of the British help in developing patriotism among the Indians?
- The British, by their „Divide and Rule‟ policy, Doctrine of Lapse and Doctrine of Subsidiary Alliance, were able to effectively exercise their control over India.
- A single uniform system of administration came into effect. Although there were numerous provincial kingdoms existing in India, the British were able to exercise their control over them.
- By this, they were successful in bringing uniformity in administration and in maintenance of law and order. Consequently, India witnessed equality and a single type of administrative system.
2. What are the changes that took place in India due to Industrial Revolution?
- The European market witnessed serious discrepancy and imbalance.
- Normally the export of finished goods was more than import at any time.
- Due to Industrial Revolution, India had to face a situation where they were forced to export only raw materials.
- The British brought finished goods from England to India and started to sell them at a very cheap rate. Indian manually-produced materials were no match for the goods which were produced by machinery at a low cost of production. Consequently, the domestic industries started losing very heavily and industries became sick. Employees lost their jobs.
- This situation had a serious repercussion on the Indian economy.
3. What is „mahalwari system‟?
- It was introduced by R.M.Baird and James Thompson.
- Mahal means Taluk. Instead of landlords, mahaldars were appointed to collect the tax. The mahaldars were expected to collect the tax based on the land area
- and pay it to the government. Here again, the mahaldars acted like agents of the landlords and made huge money, resulting in exploitation of farmers.
4. What are the reforms brought about by the British in the educational field?
- East India Company introduced systematic education.
- Lord William Bentinck laid the foundation for English education as recommended by Lord Macaulay‟s report.
- This enabled rational thinking and study of western literature.
- The East India Company started the teaching of western literature, humanities and science in the Hindu college of Bengal.
- Universities came up in Calcutta, Madras and Mumbai. An engineering college was started in Roorkie.
- Charleswood suggested that priority should be given to primary education by establishing.
5. Developments in Transport and Communication led to the Independence struggle. Discuss.
- The British developed transport and communication wherever they went to promote self-interest.
- They created links to reach every nook and corner of the country.
- The first train link started between Mumbai and Thane in the year 1853.
- Initially this facility was only meant for the transport of raw material, finished goods and the army.
- Indirectly, this facility helped to organize the people and enable them to exchange their views and problems.
- This helped in the national integrity by bringing the people together.
6. Why did the British introduced many practices in relation to land tax system?
- The primary intention of the British was to gain profit more than bringing in administrative reforms.
- Thus, they introduced many new practices in relation to land tax system.
7. Explain the features of Zamindari system during the period of rule by Kings.
- During the period of rule by kings, the kings had the right to collect taxes.
- As the empire got expanded, from the view point of ease of administration, the Moghuls brought the system of auctioning the right to collect taxes. The tax was being fixed on the quantity of agricultural produce.
- After the auction system, the village took the responsibility of collecting the tax fixed by the auction.
- The ownership rights remained with the village.
8. In which places Zamindari system was introduced?
This system was introduced this system in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
9. Name the places where Ryotawari system was introduced.
Ryotawari system was introduced in Madras, Mumbai, Sindh, Bihar and Assam areas.
10. Briefly explain the features of Ryotawai system.
- According to this system, the farmers acquired rights to ownership of the land and had to pay tax based on the area of the land.
- When the farmers failed to pay the tax, they lost the rights to the land. In such eventualities, the government had the authority to sell the land.
- Another feature of this rule was that all disputes related to the land were to be settled in courts instead of at the village Panchayat.
11. What are the demerits of the tax systems introduced by the British?
- Though the terms zamindari system, peasantry system and mahalvari system sound different, the objective of all of these was the same- exploitation of farmers and amassing wealth.
- In different areas, the system had different names, but the effect of all the systems was the same and this led to misery of farmers.
12. What were the struggles faced by the Indian Newspapers during the rule of
- The English newspaper „Calcutta Journal‟ was severely criticized by the government.
- The editor, Buckingham was ostracized from India. As a result, a rule was framed against the newspapers.
- As per this Act, a newspaper could be published only with the prior approval of the Governor General.
- Surendranath Bannerjee was sent to prison for two months for his article in „The Bengali‟.