CHAPTER – 1
PROBLEMS OF INDIA AND REMEDIES
I Choose the Correct Answer from the following alternatives
1. Which is considered as one of the biggest evils of Indian society?
a)Communalism b)corruptions c)Secularism d) Regionalism
2. “We the people of India” stresses on Indian?
a)Imperialism b)Communalism c)Nationalism d) Regionalism
3. In which year the „National Literacy Mission‟ was launched?
a)1985 b)1987 c)1986 d)1988
4. Lokayukta Institution has been set up to control?
a)Poverty b)Corruption c)Overpopulation d) Economic Inequality
5. The percentage of literates in India in the year 2001 is
a)64% b)62% c)68% d) 66%
6. „Stree Shakti scheme‟ has been implemented for the development of
a)Rural children b)Rural orphans c)Rural women d) Rural disabled
7. The economic gap between the rich and the poor sections of the society refers to
a)Economic imbalance b)Economic inequality c)Economic drop d)Economic rise
8. Unemployment, poverty, illiteracy and water scarcity are the main consequence of
a)Profiteering b)Over population c)Regionalism d) Communalism
9. Name the scheme undertaken by the government to reduce poverty in India?
a)Sarva Siksha Abhiyan b)Yashaswini Programme c)Yuvathi Mandalas d) Jawahar Rozgar yojana
10. Smuggling can be checked by under taking
a)Export import policy b) Divide and rule policy c)Social policy d)Careful fiscal policy
II. FILL IN THE BLANKS:
1. The Divide and rule policy of the British Government has sown the seeds of modern communalism in India.
2. Our Constitution provides proper platform for unity in diversity.
3. To provide the education to girls and physically challenged Sarva Siksha Abhiyan has been launched in2001.
4. Political Corruption leads to organized crimes
5. Government of Karnataka has implemented Stree Shakti programme for the development of rural women.
5. The poor and tribes should be made partners rather than victims of development.
6. Social boycott of smuggled goods have an effect to check smuggling.
7. Developing deep attachment with the place of living is called regionalism
8. Linguistic states have been created in 1956 A.D in India
9. In Karnataka‟ there is Lokayukta/sub-Lokayukta to curb corruption.
10. Population of India has crossed 121crores as per 2011 censes.
11. Getting more profits from consumers is called as Profiteering
III. MATCH THE FOLLOWING:
1. Sarva Siksha Abhiyan - a) 2009 A.D f
2. Right to education - b)The British Government a
3. National Literacy Mission - c) 1956 A.D d
4. Divide & rule policy - d) 1988 b
5. Reorganization of states - e) The centre government c
- f) 2001 A.D
IV. TEXTUAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS :-
1. Communalism is harmful to national progress. How?
- Communalism glorifies religious decision of society resulting in mutual distrust and threat.
- Communalism in India is a menace which is capable to disrupts the very unity and integrity of our nation.
- Communalism propagates hate – philosophy among religious groups
- Communalism leads to social unrest and even the ruin of life and property.
- Communalism spreads with unwarranted mutual accusation, insult and even physical combat among the religious groups.
2. Regionalism is against national development. Discuss?
- Extreme regionalism harms national unity and interest.
- Locally centered emotional attachment must be conducive to overall national growth.
- Linguistic fanaticism too leads to regionalism against Indian nationalism.
- If extreme regionalism among the states are allowed to continue, it will cause serious interstate – border disputes, river water disputes,etc.
3. What are the measures to spread literacy? Or What are the measures to eradicate illiteracy?
- “Sarva Siksha Ahiyan‟has been launched in 2001 to provide the education to girls and physically challenged.
- In 1988 „National Literacy Mission‟ has also been established by government of India to make illiterates literates.
- Literate India, programme has been launched to eradicate illiteracy.
- Through Article 21 of our Constitution Right Education – 2009 has been guaranteed.
- Compulsory free education has been implemented for the children between 6 ad 14 years.
4. What are the suggestions to improve position of women?
- To improve Women‟s education and Development Government has started Women and Children Development Department.
- Women education, Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, Dowry Prohibition Act etc.,are there for the empowerment of women.
- Government of Karnataka has implemented “Stree Shakti‟ programme for the development of rural women.
- There is a programme of loan & subsidy for women self- employment.
- Mahila Mandalas, Yuvathi Mandalas, Stree Shakti Organization, self-help groups, Women co-operatives help for the all round progress of women
- Women Commission at national and state level have been constituted to enquire the cases of women and impart justice to them.
- There is an effort to have the Reservation for women from Panchayat to Parliament.
- In Karnataka already 33% reservation has been implemented for women in local government.
- Even in jobs women reservations has been provided.
5. Population is deemed has human resources-Explain? Or What are the measures government has taken for the welfare of Women?
- Human Resource is required for the judicious exploitation of natural resource and to achieve economic development of a nation.
- So, planning for the harmonious utilization of natural & human resource is necessary, at the national level, for this purpose Human Resource Development Ministry was formed.
- Economic growth has to involve more and more human potentialities.
- Since, India is the second largest populated country, these human resource with their knowledge, skills and capacities can properly used for all round development of our country.
- In this way human power can rightly deemed as an asset to our country.
6. What are the plans to eradicate poverty? Explain.
- BPL cards are issued to poor families.
- Five year plans in India are directed to eradicate poverty and increase per capita income.
- Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, Rural Employment Guarantee Programme.
- Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojanas.
7. What is meant by Smuggling? What are your suggestions to control it?
- Smuggling means bringing goods from foreign countries illegally without paying duties.
- Smuggling can be checked effectively by encouraging import substitutions.
- Suitable modulations of domestic market prices.
- Proper export-import policy.
- Strict costal vigilance service.
- Punitive measures
- Inter-state trade agreements.
- Proper awareness among citizens has to be created, that smuggling is an anti- national and economically a crime.
- Social boycott of smuggled goods have an effect to smuggling.
8. “Profiteering brings loss both for producer and consumer” Explain this.
- Profiteering refers to the gaining of huge money by easy method in business. This easy money corrupts society.
- It creates economic inequality and enhances poverty.
- It even encourages crimes in society.
- Profiteering is the result of unethical practices of trade.
- Continuous rise in prices results inflation. This significantly erodes large chunk of the income of the masses.
- Unchecked price rise is the main cause of undue profiteering.
- Increase in profit margin of producers and especially of distributors have paved the path for profiteering.
- This trend has to be properly regulated by the state authority. This
- Necessitates stabilization of price level.
V. EXTRA QUESTIONS :- 1 Marks
1. What is Communalism?
The spilt of the whole national community on the basis of religion and strong feeling that their group identities and interests are opposed to each other.
2. What is Regionalism?
The strong feeling of people in favour of local area in which they live.
3. What is Corruption?
An inducement to do wrong by bribery or other unlawful means.
4. What is Profiteering?
The gaining of huge money by easy method in business.
5. For what purpose the „Literate India Programme‟ has been launched?
To eradicate illiteracy in India.
6. Define Poverty.
By poverty we mean an income level below which people are not able to get sufficient food, clothing, housing & other basic necessities of life.
7. Name some of the corruption practices which are seen in the society.
- Misappropriation ,fraud
- Violation of rules of foreign exchanges
- Professional misconduct
8. What are the factors leading towards the over population in India?
- Increasing birth rate
- Decreasing death rate
- Raise of long lively period
- Decrease of infant mortality
9. What are the problems created due to rapid growth of population?
- Health and water scarcity etc.
10. Name some means to tackle the problem of over-population.
- Spread of literacy Technical training
- Agricultural development Industrial growth
- Export promotion Creation of employment opportunities
11. Name some of the factors which lead to profiteering.
- Monopoly of business houses
- Spread of multinational companies
- Unhealthy market practices
- Black marketing
- Lack of proper price monitoring by commercial authorities.
12. Name some remedial measures to check the profiteering.
- Proper governmental regulations
- Control of price index
- Expansion of cooperative marketing sector
- Proper taxation policy
13. Name some of the reasons whose combined effects are the cause for Economic inequality in the society.
- High salary syndrome in private sectors
- Operation of multinational companies
- Increasing segment of white collar jobs
14. Name the three reasons on which the level of corruption largely depends on.
- Individual sense of values
- The set of socially accepted values as a whole
- The system of governance or administration
15. What are the reasons for Illiteracy?
- Child labour
- Child marriage
- Assignment of responsibility of baby care to elderly children
- Lack of interests to give education to children.
16. Name the schemes undertaken by the government to reduce poverty in India.
- Jawahar Rozgar Yojana
- Rural Employment Guarantee Programme
- Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojanas.
17. What are very essential to combat communalism? Or What precaution to control communalism?
- Uniform legal system,
- equal treatment of all citizens,
- practice of secularism in all aspects of public life,
- furtherance of national feeling above the sectarian thoughts,
18. Which are the combined effects to combact communalism?
- All religious groups in India. Religious fundamentalism should notbe allowed to harm the national interests and Indian nationalism.
- Proper secular education to children can positively help to restrain communalism.
- Public awareness,
- political determination,
- administrative fairness,
- sound legal system,
- strong nationalistic ideology,
- healthy media all will have combined effect to combat communalism in India.
19. What are the remedial measures to reduce regionalism?
- Our Constitution provides proper platform for unity in diversity.
- Thus, healthy regionalism has to be developed along with the strong nationalism in our Country.
- Parochialism exists even within a state.
- Special importance has been given in our state to remove any regional imbalance.
- Committees like Dr.D.M.Nanjundappa Committee,Malenadu Development Committee, Hyderabad-Karnataka Development Committee have been formed to achieve regional balance.
- The Union Government too has made attempts to curb parochialism by launching many projects for the development of the North-East States.
20. What are the measure to check corruption?
- strong political will as well as public support are essential.
- good political leadership,
- sound bureaucracy and politically matured citizens with civic sense have to struggle jointly to control the menace of corruption.
- The offices of Lokpal and Lok Ayukta too have got corrective utility to control corruption.
- Educational Institutions, and Social leaders also have got their positive role in tackling these problems.
- Strict punitive measures have to be adopted while dealing with corruption at all levels in our country.
21. What are the methods to minimizing the Economic gap?
- Proper economic reforms,
- careful fiscal policies,
- healthy taxation system coupled with small scale and rural based industries would go a long way to remove this economic inequality.
- Growth of large industrial houses, monopolies are to be properly regulated.
- So that fruits of national growth can never be unequally distributed.
- Land reforms,
- labour oriented policies,
- social securities etc. too have positive role in minimizing this economic gap.
POINTS TO REMEMBER:
1956 – Reorganization of India on linguistic basis.
2001 – 66% of literates.
2011 – 74% of literates.
2001 – Sarva Siksha Abhiyan.
1988 – National Literacy Mission.
2009 – Through Article 21, Right to education.
1991 - 2001 Population grew from 84 million to 102.7 million.
2011 – Census the total population of India is 121 crores.
Jai prakash narain and Anna hazare – Eradication of corruption.
Karnataka – 33% reservation has been implemented for women in local governments.