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SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS REFORMS-10th Standard Social Science Notes

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Chapter 5

SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS REFORMS

I. Choose the correct answers from the following alternatives.

1. Raja Ram Mohan Roy founded

a)Arya Samaj b)Sathya Shodhak samaj c)Brahmo Samaj d)Prarthana Samaj

2. Father of Indian Renaissance” was

a)Dayananda Saraswathi b)Vivekananda c)Jyothiba phule d) Raja Ram Mohan Ray

3. Prohibition of Sati Act was introduced by

a)William Bentinck b)Robert Clive c )Lord Dalhousie d)Sir Iyre coot

4. The newspaper in Bengal started by Ram Mohan Ray was

a)Sathyartha Prakasha b)New India c)Ghulamagiri d)Samvada Kaumudi

5. Arya Samaj was founded by

a)Ram Mohan Ray b)Dayananda Saraswathi c)Sir Syed Ahmed khan d)Annie Besant

6. The Satya Shodhak samaj was established by

a)Dayananda Saraswathi b)Ram Mohan Ray c)Jyotibaphule d)Vivekananda

7. The First Girls high school was Started by

a)M.G.Ranade b)Sir Syed Ahmed Khan c)Ramakrishana Paramahamsa d)Dayananda saraswathi

8. The Anglo Oriental college was renamed as

a)Hindu Banaras college b)Aligarh Muslim University  c)Home Rule Movement d)Deccan Education Institution

9. Conference of word Religions at Chicago was held in the year

a)1983 b)1893 c)1885 d)1857

10. The news paper started by Annie Besant was

a)New india b)Samvada Kaumudi c)Shudras d)Slavery

11. The President of the congress session held in 1917 was a)Vivekananda b)Annie Besant c)Madame Blavatsky d)Atmarama Panduranga

12. The Home Rule Movement was started by Annie Besant in India in

a)1906 b)1970 c)1916 d)1924

13 Return to the Vedas call was given by

a)Dayananda Saraswati b)Shahu maharaj c)Jyotibaphule d)Dr. B.R. Ambedikar

14. From India Represented the conference of world religions held at chicago

a)Ramakrishna Paramahamsa b)Dayananda Saraswathi c)Swami Vivekananda d)Ram Mohan Roy

II Fill in the Blanks with suitable answers

1. The 19th Century is called the period of Renaissance

2. Raja Ram Mohan Roy started the newspaper Samvada Kaumudi

3. The founder of Prarthana Samaj was Atmaram Panduranga

4. Jyoti ba phule propagated that freedom was the basic necessity of every individual.

5. Swami Vivekananda‟s guru was Sri Rama Krishna Paramahamsa

6. Dayananda saraswathi Began a Purification ceremony to baring back the Hindu religion all those who had got converted to other religion

7. Dayananda saraswathi Proclaimed that “India should be for Indians

8. Service to mankind is service to god was the principle of Prarthana samaj

9. Prathana Samaj‟s principles were popularized by M.G.Ranade

10. Sahu Maharaj was deeply influenced by satya shodak samaj

11. Jyotibaphule wrote in detail about exploitation in his book Gulamagiri

12. Ramakrishna Paramahamsa was a priest at the Dakshineshwar Kali Temple

13. Annie Besant was an Irish lady.

14. Swami Vivekananda Stressed that practice of yoga and social service was also necessary for achievement of Salvation (Moksha)

15. The founders of Theosophical Society were Madame Blavatsky and Colonel H.S. Alcaret

III Match the following

1. Brahma samaj a) Dayananda saraswathi d

2. Purification Cermony b) Sir Syed Ahmad Khan a

3. Prohibition of Sati act c) Bala Gangadhara Tilak e

4. Alighar Movement d) Ram Mohan Roy b

5. Maratha & Kesari e) William Bentinck d

 

1. Samavada kumudi a) Vivekananda d

2. Satyartha Prakasha b) Atma Rama Pandurang b

3. New India c) Atma Rama Pandurang e

4. Deccan Education Instituion d) Ram Mohan Roy c

5. Ramakrishan Mission e) Annie Besant a

IV Discuss the following in groups and write the answers:

1. What are the preachings of the Brahmo Samaj?

  • It attempted to bring in reforms in the traditions and customs in Hindu religion.
  • It opposed idol- worship and polytheism, and encouraged monotheism.
  • It condemned performance of yagas and rituals, and opposed the priestly class. Since English education exposed Indians to Western political thought, it enabled the development of nationalism among Indians.

2. Analyse the call of Dayananda Saraswati to return to the Vedas.

  • Arya Samaj was established by Dayananda Saraswati.
  • He travelled throughout the country giving lectures and emphasized that the Vedas were the source of truth and knowledge.
  • In this context, he advised people to „Return to theVedas‟.

3. Explain the reforms propagated by Satyashodhak Samaj.

  • Satyashodak Samaj urged for prohibition of liquor.
  • It vehemently opposed gender inequality, denial of human rights, exploitation of people and practice of untouchability.
  • It started a movement for social justice.
  • Jyotiba Phule established a school for girls.
  • He condemned theslavery being forced on shudras and casteless classes including dalits, and denounced the people responsible for such slavery.
  • He advocated free and compulsory education in order to bring about reform in the social system.

4. Analyse the objectives of the Aligarh Movement.

The Aligarh Movement aimed at promoting harmony of Eastern and Western ideas through transformation of the Muslims in their political, social, educational, religious and philosophical beliefs.

5. Explain the vision of Ramakrishna Mission.

The main objective of this organization was to spread the message of equality of all religions and to put that into practice.

6. Swami Vivekananda was a great inspiration to the youth. Explain.

In 1893, at the Chicago Conference of World Religions, Swami Vivekananda upheld the greatness of Indian by advocating tolerance of all religions, and maintaining that all religions were true. In this manner, he introduced Indian culture to the world. He was a role model to the youth.

7. Which are the reforms brought about by Annie Besant?

  • Annie Besant, an Irish lady started the activities of Theosophical Society in India and gave it new vitality.
  • She aroused pride in Indian culture through her lectures. She attempted to establish equality, universal brotherhood and harmony in society.
  • Annie Besant gave her full support to the freedom struggle.
  • She started a newspaper called „New India‟. In 1916, she started Home Rule movement.
  • She was the President of the Congress Session in 1917.
  • She contributed immensely to Indian philosophy and the Independence struggle.

8. Name the social reformers who tried to reform Indian society.

Mohan Roy, Dayanand Saraswati, Mahadev Govinda Ranade, Jyotiba Phule, Swami Vivekananda, Annie Besant, Syed Ahmed Khan and other worked towards social reform.

9. Narrate the principles of Brahma Samaja.

It opposed idol- worship and polytheism, and encouraged monotheism.

It condemned performance of yagas and rituals, and opposed the priestly class. Since English education exposed Indians to Western political thought.

10. What were the teachings of Dayananda Saraswati ?

  • He condemned idol worship and the caste system.
  • He maintained that caste should be decided based on the ability and not on the birth of the person.
  • He rejected the innumerable meaningless practices and dominance of the priestly class.
  • He encouraged widow marriage.
  • He urged people to use Swadeshi goods.

11. Briefly Explain write a short note of purification movement .

  • The caste system and rigid beliefs of the Hindu religion had pushed people towards other religions.
  • In this context, with an intention to integrate the Hindu society, Dayananda Saraswati reinterpreted the Vedas and advocated caste and gender equality.
  • He began a Purification Ceremony to bring back to the Hindu religion all those who had got converted to other religions.
  • Those who came back underwent the Purification ritual and were accepted by Hinduism.
  • Thus he strengthened the Hindu religion.

12. What were the principles of Prathana Samaj?

  • It was founded on the principle that service to mankind is service to God.
  • It gave priority to spread of education.
  • Through the Deccan Education Institution, it aimed to develop the educational field.
  • It encouraged widow marriage, female literacy, inter caste marriage, eating together by people of all castes, and opposed child marriage, caste system, idol worship and purdah system.

13. Explain the role of Sathya Shodak Samaj in Socio religions reformation.

  • Satyashodak Samaj urged for prohibition of liquor.
  • It vehemently opposed gender inequality, denial of human rights, exploitation
  • of people and practice of untouchability.
  • It started a movement for social justice.

14. What were the teachings of Swamy Vivekananda ?

  • Swami Vivekananda was a revolutionary monk who opened the eyes of Indians to the importance of loving life.
  • He stressed the significance of the individual, his presence and ability.
  • He maintained that apart from prayer and practice of yoga, social service was also necessary for achievement of salvation (moksha).

Key Points Important Persons

Ram Mohan Roy :- The father of Indian renaissance founder of Bramho samaj started news paper in Bengali called Samvada Kaumudi

William Bentinck :- He introduced prohitition of Sati Act

Atmarama Panduranga :- Founder prathana samaj started deccan Education institution

Dayananda saraswathi:- Founder of the Arya samaja propounded his teachings in a book called satyaratha prakasha he advised people to Return to Vedas

Jyotibaphule :- Founder of the he started Girls school wrote his book Gulamagiri

Sir Syed Ahmed khan :- Started the Aligarh movement he started Anglo –Oriental college became the Aligarh Muslim university

Ramakrishana Paramahamsa :- priest at the kali temple at dakshineshwar near Calcutta

Swam Vivekananda :- Founder of the Ramakrishana mission he was a revolutionary monk of India . He attended conference of world religions in 1893

Annie Besant :- Launched home rule movement in 1916 started a news paper called new India.

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