THE ADVENT OF EUROPEANS TO INDIA–10th Standard Social Science Notes

Chapter - 1


Key words

1.Diwani rights : Rights to Collect land Revenue

2.Dastak : Permission for free trade in India

3.Black Hole Tragedy : British soldiers Lodged in a small room. Among them 146 prisoners there 123 died due to the saffocations

4.Monopoly : The right solely possessed by an individuals Or organization to buy or sell in a place Called monopoly

Important Persons

1. Anwaruddin : Nawab of Carnatic

2. Siraj ud daula : Nawab of Bengal

3. Robert Clive : a)He was the first British officer responsible for the creation of British Empire in India.

b) Introduced Dual Government

c) First Governor of Bengal Province

4. Duplex : He was appointed as Governor General of the French possessions in India.

5. Vasco d agama : The Portuguse Navigator. First European to reestablish trade relations with India. First European navigator discovered sea route India.

6. Sir Iyer coot : British Commander during 3rd Carnatic war.

7. Furuk siyyar : The mughal emperor who granted some villages to British near Calcutta

8. Jahangir : The mughal emperor who gave permission to British East India Company to carry on trade

Year and Events

1. 1453 A D :The Ottoman Turks Captured Constantinople

2. 1498 A D : Vasco d agama came to Calicut on the western cost of India.

3. 1600 A D : The East India Company was established in England

4. 1602 A D : United East India Company was established in Netherland.

5. 1619 A D : The Moguls Emperor, Jehangir, gave permission to the East India Company .

6. 1639 A D : The British established their ware house at Madras.

7. 1664 A D : The French East India Company was established at France.

8. 1757 A D : Battle of Plassey

9. 1767 A D : Robert Clive Returned to England

10. 1742 A D : Dupleix was appointed as Governor General of French possessions in India.

11. 1746 A D : Battle of Madras.

12. 1764 A D : Battle of Buxar.

I. Choose the Correct Answer from the following alternatives :-

1. The commercial activities of Asia was being controlled by

a)Indian b)Arabs c)Italy d)Persia

2. Vasco da gama came to Calicut in

a)1489 b)1448 c)1498 d)1849

3. The Mughal emperor who granted some villages to British near Calcutta was

a)Jahangir b)Bahadur shah II c)Furnrk siyyar d)Babar

4. The nawab of carnatic region was

a)Tippu b)Hyder Ali c)Siraj –ud –Daula d)Anwaruddin

5. Siraj ud Daula was the Nawab of

a)Bengal b)Madras c)Mysore d)Carnatic

6. French government appointed as Governor General of the French possession in India in 1742

a)Robert Clive b)Dupleix c)Shah Alam d)Nir Qasim

7. Constantinople was captured by

a)Persians b)Arabs c)Ottoman Turks d)Portuguese

8. In A D Turks Occupied Constantinople

a)1453 b)1401 c)1543 d)1354

9. The Battle of Plassey was fought in___________A D.

a)1857 b)1758 c)1757 d)1775

10. The British commander who defeated French in the battle of wandiwash was

a)Sir Iyer coot b)Robert clive c)Dupleix d)Cornwallis

11. The French East India company was established in

a)1602 b)1664 c)1600 d)1661

12. The English East India Company was established in

a)1602 b)1600 c)1664 d)1646

13. The mughal emperor gave permission to East India Company to carry on trade was

a) Siraj –ud –Daula b)Jahangir c)Anwaruddin d)Mir Jafar

II. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:

1. The European trade was monopolized by Italy in India in the 17th Century.

2. The Carnatic wars was fought between British and French

3. In the battle of Wandiwash , British commander Sir Iyer Coot defeated the French.

4. In the Battle of Plassey Robert Clive assumed the leadership of the English army.

5. Dual government was brought by Robert Clive in Bengal.

6. The western European nations tried to look for alternative trade routs through the Atlantic ocean.

7. French under the leadership of Dupleix supported Chanda sahib during second carnatic war.

8. The Battle of Plassey was fought in 1757

9. The British got the Zamindari rights over the 24 paraganas from Mir Jafar

10. The Battel of Buxar was fought in 1764.

11. Shah Alam conceded the diwani right to the British.

III. Match the following.

1. Dastak  -  Free pass

2. Diwani  - land Revenue

3. Shah Alam  - Moghul Emperor

4. Battle of Madras  - 1746

5. United East India  - 1602

IV. Answer the following questions after discussing them in groups:

1. How was the European trade conducted with India in the beginning?

  • There was a great demand for Indian goods in European market , chiefly for Indian spices like pepper, cinnamon, cardomom, ginger and such other things.
  • These products were being exported to Greek and Roman empires of Europe.
  • In the middle ages, trade between Asian countries and Europe used to take place via the Presian Gulf, Red sea and through the north westren regions of India.

2. “Scientific developments led to sea voyages”. Justify this statement.

The new scientific instruments like the compass, gun powder, naval equipments, maps etc., helped the sailors in their sea voyage.

3. Explain how the Carnatic wars helped the British to settle down firmly in India.

In the conflict between the British and the French, Nawab Anwaruddin of Carnatic was used as a pawn by the British.

First Carnatic War :

  • The French captured Madras.
  • On account of the agreement that was made subsequently, the French handed over Madras back to the English.

Second Carnatic War :

  • In the Deccan region, there ensued a struggle for the position of the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Nawab of Carnatic.
  • In this struggle for succession, the English and the French supported their candidates.
  • The British, under the leadership of Robert Clive, supported Anwaruddin.
  • In the same manner, the French under the leadership of Dupleix, supported Chanda Sahib.
  • In the war that ensued, Robert Clive attacked Arcot and surrounded Tiruchirapalli.
  • Chanda Sahib who supported the French, died in the battle.
  • Due to this Carnatic region fell indirectly into the hands of the British.

Third Carnatic War :

  • The attempt of the French to capture Fort St.George and attack Madras did not succeed.
  • The English army Commander Sir Iyer Coot, defeated the French in the Battle of Wandiwash.

4. What are the results of the battle of Plassey?

  • In this war of 1757, the English army under Robert Clive, decisively defeated Nawab Siraj-ud-Daul at the Battle of Plassey.
  • Mir Jafar, who helped the British, was nominated as the Nawab of Bengal.
  • The British in return got the zamindari right over the 24 Paraganas and became all powerful.

5. What were the causes for the battle of Buxar ?

  • When Mir Jafar started consolidating his position,The British removed him and appointed Mir Qasim as the Nawab of Bengal.
  • In return he granted the British the regions of Burdwan,Midnapur and Chittagong.
  • When Mir Qasim tried to free himself from the hold of the British,he was removed.
  • Later, the english installed once again Mir Jafar as a Nawab with certain conditions.

6. Describe the system of Dual Government.

  • English were collecting the land revenue.
  • Administration, importing of Justice and other administrative functions were carry on by the Nawab. This as been called the „Dual Government‟.

7 What is monopoly?

The right solely possessed by an individual or organization to buy or sell in a place is called monopoly.

8. Where did English establish there first warehouse?

English established there first warehouse at Madras.

9. Write a short on Robert Clive.

  • Robert Clive was the first official responsible for the creation of a British India.
  • He had joined the East India Company as a clerk. He played a significant role in the Carnatic War, Porlimentary in the sages of Arcot and became responsible for the victory of the British.
  • After having become successful in the establishment of the British existance in the south, he was also responsible for their victory over Bengal.
  • On account of the Battle of Plassey of 1757, he gained control over the Nawab of Bengal.
  • He was appointed as Governor of Bengal in1765 and he Introduced Dual Government.

10. Briefly Explain the Administration of Dupleix.

  • Dupleix was appointed Governor General of the French possessions in India in 1742. In order to realize his dream of establishing French supremacy over India, Dupleix had entered into agreements with the native Rulers.
  • Even Hyder Ali was trained in the same native army that was rared byDupleix. Dupleix had posed a great challenge to the establishment of British supremacy.
  • Dupleix having played a Significant role in the battle of Madras of 1746, was successful.
  • The conflict between the French and British continued till 1757.
  • Subsequently, the French Government, desiring peace, recalled Dupleix.

11. Explain Black Hole Tragedy.

  • In 1756, Siraj-ud-daula, the Nawab of Bengal, had attacked Qasim Bazaar, the
  • trade centre of the British, and occupied St.David Fort of Calcutta.
  • He lodged the British soldiers captured at this time in a small room at Calcutta. Among the 146 prisoners imprisoned there, 123 died due to the suffocating heat in the room.
  • This came to be known as the „Black Hole Tragedy‟.

12. What is Diwani?

Diwani Rights means the right to collect land Revenue.

13. What made the Europeans to discover sea routs to India?

  • For a very long time, the Europeans and the Arabs had trade relations with India through Asian land routes.
  • It was from Constantinople through the territories of Asia that they came over to India.
  • During those days, this was the only available route to India. But with the Capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks in1453 the Europeans trade with India was adversly effected.
  • This was the chief motivating factor for the Europeans to search for an alternative route to India.

14. Why did Europeans to find out the alternative routes to India?

  • To over come the Italian monopoly over the trade .
  • The stories that were being told about the wealth of the Eastern nations,
  • The eagerness of missionaries for prozelytisation were a source of inspiration which promoted to find out alternative routes to India.
  • To over come the Italian monopoly over trade

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