Chapter – 6
THE FIRST WAR OF INDIAN INDEPENDENCE (1857 A.D.)
I Chose the Correct Answer from the following alternatives
1. The first war of Indian Independence was started in
a)1857 b)1775 c)1864 d)1947
2. The 1857 revolt is Called as Sepoy Mutiny by
a)India Historians b)British Historians c)Social Reformats d)Netive Rulers
3. The Doctrine of lapse was introduced by
a)Warren Hastings b)Lord Cornwallis c)Lord Dalhousie d) Munro
4. Industrial Revolution took place in
a)India b)France c)England d)U.S.A
5. A Strong Military strong base of British was
a)Delhi b)Luknow c)Jaipur d)Meerut
6. British officer was killed by an India soldier named
a)Bhagat Singh b)Mangal Pandey c)Tilak d)Subas Chandra Bose
7. In Kanpur revolt was led by
a)Tatya Tope b)Rani Laxmibai c)Nana sahib d)Bahadur shah II
II Fill in the blanks with suitable answers
1. British historians refer to the 1857 revolt as the Sepoy Mutiny
2. The policy brought into force by Dalhousie was Doctrine of Lapse
3. Mangal Pandey killed the British Major during the 1857 revolt.
4. Jhansi Rani fought aganist British and took Gwallor under her control.
5. Indian Historians called 1857 revolt as The first war of Independence
6. The Soldiers were being given new rifles called Royal Enfield
7. Tatya Tope Was the assistant of Nanasaheb
8. Jhansi Rani Laxmibai Occupies a pride of place in the history of the Independence straggle
9. The declaration of Queen of England in 1858 has been called as Magna Carta
10. The Doctrine of lapse was introduced by Lord Dallhousie
11. The administrative responsibilities was handed over to The Secretary of
III Match the following
1. Bahadur ShahII a)Kanpur d
2. Mangal Pandey b)Luknow c
3. Nana Saheb c)Baracpur a
4. Rani Laxmi Bai d)Moghul King b
IV. Discuss the following in groups and answer them:
1. What were the effects of the Doctrine of Lapse? Explain. Or What were the political causes for the 1857 revolt.
- Many kingdoms lost their rights due to the promulgation of Doctrine of Lapse brought about by the British.
- Satara, Jaipur, Jhansi, Udaipur and other kingdoms came under British control. Dalhousie cancelled the princely titles of the Nawabs of Tanjore and Carnatic kingdoms.
- The Moghul sultans, the Nawab of Oudh and other kings were stripped of their kingly status.
- Consequently, thousands of soldiers who were dependent on these kings, became unemployed.
- This became a strong cause for the protest of 1857 against the British.
2. The economic changes of the time were responsible for the 1857 revolt. How?
- Due to the industrial revolution in England, Indian handicrafts and cottage industries suffered heavily.
- England, instead of being a trading country, became a hub of industries.
- The Indian craftsmen became unemployed. Primarily, the textile and wool industries became sick and people lost their jobs.
- Thecottage industries too suffered a death blow.
- The British imposed a heavy tax on sale of Indian goods in England.
- Because of the zamindari system, the landlords, acting as commission agents
- between the Government and the farmers, exploited the farmers.
- The right given to the taluks to collect tax was withdrawn. An „Inam Commission‟ was appointed and all the gifted lands („Inam lands‟) were taken back. Due to this, the farmers felt insulted and experienced many financial problems. This too led to the revolt of farmers against the government.
3. What were the factors that disturbed the religious sentiments of the soldiers during the 1857 revolt?
The religious sentiments of the Indian soldiers were disturbed when they were forced to cross the oceans to serve on a foreign land.
4. What were the immediate causes for the First War of Independence?
- Most of the Indian soldiers in the British army believed that if they fought together, they could drive away the British from India.
- At that time, the soldiers were being given new rifles called „Royal Enfield‟.
- A rumour spread among the soldiers that the cartridges used in these rifles were greased with the fat of cow and pigs.
- While cows were sacred to the Hindus, pigs were blasphemous for Muslims.
- This incident became the immediate cause for the revolt.
5. Make a list of the reasons for the failure of the revolt.
- The movement did not spread to the whole country.
- This struggle was intended to protect the interests of a few rather than getting freedom for the country.
- Instead of being an organized struggle, it erupted due to certain unexpected reasons.
- The unity among the British forces and lack of it among the Indian soldiers also led to the failure.
- There was no proper direction or proper leadership. In addition, there was a lack of strategy, expertise among soldiers, effective leadership, discipline and direction. Many provincial kings, on account of their loyalty to the British, did not support the struggle.
- The people lost confidence in the soldiers due to their arson and looting.
6. What were the features of the declaration of the British Queen in 1858?
- The agreements made by the East India Company with the kings were accepted.
- Ambitious expansion plans had to be given up.
- A stable government had to be provided to India
- There would be equality under law.
- The government would exhibit religious tolerance and not interfere in religious matters of the country.
7. What were the Administrative causes for 1857 revolt?
- The British brought into force new civil and criminal laws.
- These were applicable only to Indians. English became the language of the courts. Most of the time the Britishjudges favoured the British.
- The new rules were not understood by the common people.
8. What were the Military Causes for 1857 revolt ?
- The condition of the Indian soldiers in the British army was pathetic.
- The status, salary and opportunities for promotion that British soldiers enjoyed were not given to Indian soldiers.
9. What were the effects of 1857 revolt?
- The freedom struggle put an end to the administration of the East India Company, and the administration was taken over by to the Queen of England.
- The administrative responsibility was handed over to the Secretary of Indian Affairs in the British Parliament.
- In 1858, the Queen of England made an announcement.
- This declaration has been called India‟s „Magna Carta‟.
10. Write a short note on Jhansi Rani Laxhmi Bai.
- Jhansi Rani Laxmibai who was enraged by the Doctrine of Lapse, declared war against the British.
- She tied her adopted son to her back and fought in the war.
- She took Gwalior under her control.
- When the battle took place again with the British, the Queen laid down her life.
- Even today, the queen occupies a pride of place in the history of the independence Jhansi Rani struggle.