Chapter – 4
THE FOUNDATION OF BRITISH ADMINISTRATION AND ITS EFFECTS
I Choose the correct answer from the following alternatives
1. Subsidiary Alliance was introduced by
a)Lord Dallhousie b)Lord Wellesly c) Lord Curzon d)Lord Canning
2. The first ruler who accepted the Doctrine of Subsidary alliance was a)Nizam of Hyderabad b)Nawab of Awadh c) Nizam of Bengal d)Maratha Peshwa
3. During Second Anglo – Maratha war scindia & Bajirao Peswa II were defeated by
a)Tippusultan b)Gayakwad c)Holkar d)Hyder
4. Ranjit singh was popularly know as
a)Tigar of mysore b)The Lion of Punjab c) The Lion of Madras d) The Lion of Delhi
5. „Khalsa‟ Means
a)Sikh Army b)Peshwa Army b)Tippu‟s Contingent d)Maratha‟s Army
6. The Prime minister of Dulip Singh was
a)Ranjit singh b)Nanaphadnavis c)Madhava Rao d)Lala Singh
7. The dual Government system brought into existence by
a)Lord Wellesley b)Lord Cornwallis c)Robert Clive d)Warren Hastings
8. The Regulating Act was passes in the year
a)1784 b)1773 c)1377 d)1857
9. The Act of 1909 is also known as
a)Minto Marley Reforms b)The Regulating Act c)Mantague Chelsford Reforms d)1935
10. Suprem Court was established, Act according to this act
a)1935 Government Act b)Pitts India Act c)Regulating Act of 1773 d)Indian Council Act of 1861
II. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:
1. The Doctrine of Subsidiary Alliance was brought into practice by Lord Wellesly.
2. The Second Anglo-Maratha War ended with the treaty of Bassein
3. The establishment of the supreme court was permitted by Regulating Act.
4. The religion based separate electoral constituency was recomended by Minto- Morley Act.
III Discuss the following in groups and answer them:
1. Explain the Doctrine of Subsidiary Alliance.
- It was certain by the beginning of the 19th Century that the British would establish their empire in India.
- They had intensified their aggression against the local kings.
- At this juncture, Lord Wellesley came to India as the Governor General.
- He brought into force the Doctrine of Subsidiary Alliance.
- Through this, the English were able to bring the local kings under their control.
2. Analyse the First Anglo-Maratha war.
- After Peshwe Narayan Rao in the Maratha kingdom. Instead of allowing Raghunatha Rao to ascend the throne, Nana Phadnavis supported the minor, Madhavrao Peshwa II.
- Raghunatha Rao sought the help of the British.
- The British took advantage of the situation and waged a war.
- Although, initially they lost, later they conquered Ahmedabad.
- Subsequent to Sallbai agreement, Madhavrao Narayan was appointed as Peshwa.
- This was the Anglo Maratha war.
3. How did the British establish their supremacy in the Punjab province?
- Ranjit Singh was a famous Sikh king, popularly known as „The Lion of Punjab‟.
- During his rule, the Sikhs had gained control on Amritsar and Ludhiana.
- After him, his son Duleep Singh succeeded him.
- Lalsingh, his Prime Minister, attacked the British with his Khalsa contingent.
- When he was defeated by the British, Duleep Singh had to accept the Doctrine of Subsidiary Alliance.
- Upset by this, the Khalsa soldiers rebelled against the British.
- As a result of the wars that took place later, Punjab province became a part of British Empire.
4. What are the main features of the Regulating Act?
- The dual government system brought into existence by Robert Clive was abolished.
- The Governor of Bengal came to be called Governor General.
- Warren Hastings became the first Governor General.
- An Advisory Committee was set up to assist in the administration.
- Copies of documents relating to the Company‟s affairs were required to be sent to the Secretary of State.
- The Supreme Court was established.
5. What are the reforms brought down by the 1909 Act?
- This law was framed in 1909 by the Viceroy of India Minto and his secretary Morley. Important aspects of the law are:
- It permitted expansion of the Central Legislature.
- The provincial legislative assemblies expanded and gave provision for elected representatives.
- A separate electoral constituency was formed based on religion.
6. Industrail capitalism become the cause for the drain of Indian Welath. How?
- In the 19th Century, India, which had till then been exporting textiles and handicrafts, had to import manufactured goods and export cotton and other raw materials.
- It had to pay a heavy price for the imported goods.
- The Company had to pay a lot to its shareholders.
- Towards that purpose, Indian wealth was transported to England.
- India had to pay even the pension to British civil and military officials.
- The profit earned by the British merchants and plantation owners was also sent out of the country.
- India had to pay interest for the money invested here by the British.
- In this manner, industrial capitalism became the cause for the drain of Indian wealth.
7. What were the changes in Indian Society due to the influence of British?
- The earlier relations with the land, skilled workers and small scale industries and handicrafts started declining.
- In their places, new land relations and modern industries came into the picture.
- The class of people who were previously associated with the land and small scale industries were no longer to be seen.
- Instead of community farming in the villages that was prevalent earlier, the modern armer and landowner could be seen.
- We can see both of them as private landowners. Skilled craftsmen and artisans have vanished totally.
- Owing to the growth of modern industries and developments in transport and communication, new classes have sprung up consisting of people like the capitalist class,workers‟class,transportworkers,agricultural labourers, contractors,landholders,merchantsetc. n this manner, as a result of the British influence of India, changes took place not nly in the economic field but also in the social structure.
8. Explain Pitts India Act of 1784.
- In order to enable efficient administration of areas under the British, permission was granted for appointing a Board of Control.
- It permitted the establishment of a Privy Council in the Advisory Committee.
- East India Company came under the control of the British Government.
9. Explain the Government of India Act of 1919 or Montegue Chelmsford Act.
- A High Commissioner to India was appointed.
- A legislative assembly with two houses was created at the Centre.
- The Upper House was called Council of States and the Lower House was called egislative Assembly.
- Bicameral governments were brought into practice in provinces too.
- The topics related to administration were divided into Central list, State list and oncurrent list.
- India was promised that a responsible government would be given gradually.
10. Explain the Government of India Act of 1935.
- This became an important document and led to the creation of a federal structure in the country. An important feature of this Act is that it gave freedom to the provinces in administration.
- It became the basis for the Indian constitution that was framed in independent ndia.