THE POLITICAL DIMENSIONS OF THE 20TH CENTURY-10th Standard Social Science Notes

Chapter 10

THE POLITICAL DIMENSIONS OF THE 20TH CENTURY

I. Choose the correct Answer from the following alternatives.

1. Socialistic Revolution in the Russia was broke out in

a)1817 b)1917 c)1875 d)1947

2. The Versailles Treaty was signed by Alliance in the year

a)1919 b)1918 c)1914 d)1939

3. In 1905 Russia was defeated by

a)France b)England c)Italy d)Japan

4. The last Russian tsar was

a)Nicholas II b)Nicholas I c)Lenin d)Stalin

5. Popular slogans like peace, food and land was given by

a)Stalin b)Lenin c)Nicholas I d)Karl marx

6. Lenin died in the year

a)1925 b)1929 c)1924 d)1930

7. The first astronaut in the world is

a)Yuri Gagarin b)Neal Armstrong c) Vasco da gama d)Hitler

8. Hitler appointed a special ministers called

a)Goebels b)Nobles c) Socialists d)Communists.

9. Hitler organized an outfit called

a)Black shirts b)Red Shirts c)Brown Shirts d)Blue shirts

10. National Fascist party was founded by

a)Hitler b)Lenin c)Karlmax d)Mussolini

11. The first ever nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were dropped by

a)Germany b)France c)England d)America

12. “Leap Forward “ Project was adopted by

a)Japan b)china c)Russia d)France

13. During world warII American Naval ase pearl harbor was attacked by

a)China b)Japan c)Italy d)Germany

II Fill in the blanks with suitable words:

1. The Communist government in Russia was established by Lenin

2. World War I ended in the year1918

3. Versailles Pact was signed in the year1919

4. Fascist dictator was mussolini

5. The leader of the Nazi Party in Germany was Hitler

6. World War II started in the year1939 Sep 1st

7. Japan attacked the American Naval Centre at Pearl Harbour

8. Germany Austre Hugary and Italy entered into Triple Alliance pact.

9. Lenin was the first one to put into practice the scientific ,Socialist ideology of Karl Marx.

10. Perestroka means Restructuring

11. Hitler became a dictator after the death of Hidenberg

12. The Nazi party was organized by Hitler.

13. The immediate reason for the world war 1 was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

14. Mussolini was assassinated in 1945.

15. Long march was organized by mao-tse tung.

III. Match the following

1. Czars a)Mao –tse-Tung c

2. Leap forward b) Hitler e

3. Long March c)Dynasty of Russia a

4. Fuhrer d)1966 b

5. Cultural Revolution e)Chinese Economy d f)1979

II Discuss the following in groups and answer them:

1. Describe Lenin‟s role in the Russian revolution.

  • Lenin gave guidance in revolutionary technique to peasants and workers. Consequently, the working class engaged in more and more agitations.
  • At this juncture, Lenin was banished from the country.
  • When the strikes proved too many and too intense to control, the last Russian Tsar, Nicholas II, deserted the country and ran away.
  • This is known as the February Revolution of 1917.
  • The liberal Mansheviks gained power.
  • They declared Russia a democratic republic.

2. What were the reforms adopted by Stalin in Russia?

  • Joseph Stalin, who became the President of Russia after Lenin, played a prominent role in moulding Russia into a force capable of challenging America.
  • The five-year plans initiated by him changed the path of development of Russia entirely.

3. Explain the immediate cause for World War I.

  • The immediate reason for the war the assassination of the Austrian prince, Archduke Franz Ferdinand on 28th July.
  • This incident created a rift between the Austria and Surbia.

4. „Nazi ideology destroyed Germany‟. Justify this statement Or What were the gist of Nazi Philosophy?

  • Nazi philosophy is: The best race in the world is the Aryan race.
  • Only Germans are eligible to rule the world. All other communities are eligible only to be ruled.
  • Jews are responsible for all the problems of Germans.
  • In addition to Jews, Communists, Catholics and Socialists are also responsible.
  • These people are unfit to exist.
  • This sort of intense nationalism was put into practice in the cruelest manner.

5. What were the causes for World War II?

  • Against the backdrop of the defeat of World War I, humiliating treaties and enormous economic loss, there developed intense nationalistic awareness in many countries.
  • In Germany and other European nations, industrialists donated huge amounts to propagate nationalism.
  • Using this resource, movements of hatred and arrogance became active.
  • People like Hitler in Germany and Mussolini in Italy came to power.
  • The ambition to win the entire world and popularize the Aryan race was one of the reasons for the World War II 1945.
  • The Great Depression during the 1930s caused by the destructive policies of the developed nations caused very difficult situations in Europe and America.

6. What is meant by cold war?

After World War II, the state of constant fear, hatred, jealousy and anxiety in political, economic, military and other affairs between the two global powers is called Cold war.

7. What were the effects of the Chinese Revolution?

  • Shiang-ki-Shak lost and fled to Taiwan. On the 1st of October 1949, the People‟s Liberation Army entered Beijing.
  • Democratic Republic of China came into being. Mao-Tse-Tung became the President.

8. Explain how America overcame its economic depression.

  • He economic crisis was witness to political change.
  • During World War II, Japan attacked the American Naval Base, Pearl Harbour. Consequently, America was dragged to the world war to fight on behalf of the Allied Forces.
  • Roosevelt motivated the common people to form a military troop ready for war.
  • He encouraged women to work in the social sector.
  • America emerged victorious in the war.
  • Even as World War II was going on, America co-operated with other countries in the establishment of the United Nations.
  • After 1945, America has grown to be the most powerful nation in the world.
  • In the aftermath of the cold war, the United States of America stands as the sole powerful nation of the world.

9. What were the features of Fascists in Italy?

  • Intense nationalistic attitude,
  • destruction of enemies,
  • glorification of violence,
  • racial supremacy,
  • imperialist expansion,
  • support to massacres were the main features of Fascism.

10. Why did People of Russia revolt against the Tsars?

  • They used to oppress the nobles, feudal lords, peasants and poor people.
  • The capitalists who were emerging as a new class, exploited the workers and others. The people were fed up of the rule of the Tsars.
  • Tsarism was being called „a prison of nationalism‟. The defeat of Russia by a small country like Japan in 1905, inspired the Russians to rise in rebellion against the Tsars.

11. What were the effects of Versailles treaty Or What were the Results of First World War?

  • In 1919, the Alliance signed a humiliating Versailles treaty.
  • Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman kingdoms lost their identity.
  • Germany lost most of its area. The map of Europe changed drastically.
  • Many small independent nations came into being.
  • With the intention of preventing wars in the future, the League of Nations was established.

12. What were the measures taken by lenin to improve Russia?

  • As soon as Lenin assumed power, he declared that all land belonged to the farmers.
  • He brought into force all economic and political policies that provided facilities for free education, sports, health and shelter to all Russians.
  • Lenin was the first one to put into practice the scientific Socialist ideology of Karl Marx.

13. Which were the Axis powers?

Germany, Italy and Japan in the Axis group.

14. Which were the allied powers?

Britain, France, Russia and other countries in the Allies group.

15. What were the effects of the Great Depression?

  • The Great Depression during the 1930s caused by the destructive policies of the developed nations caused very difficult situations in Europe and America.
  • The life style of people deteriorated to a pitiable extent.
  • Industrial and agricultural production came to a standstill.
  • Unemployment reached a dangerous proportion.

16. What were the causes for First World War?

  • Industrial revolution and new inventions led to severe competition among European countries.
  • There is a history, spanning centuries, of rivalry among European countries with regard to capturing markets and the resources of innumerable countries of the world including India.
  • Extreme militarization. Many alliance pacts were formed.
  • Extreme nationalism began to develop in some countries.
  • Imperialist tendencies strengthened.
  • The first World War divided the countries into two groups.
  • Britain, France and Russia formed the Triple Entente pact whereas Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy entered into a Triple Alliance pact.

17 Which atomoshpere enabled and the growth of dictator like Hitler?

Unemployment, poverty and slump in development led to widespread dissatisfaction which was exploited by German industrialists for their own profit. This atmosphere enabled the growth of a dictator like Hitler

18. What is Holo caust?

Hitler mass massacre of Jews people was called „Holocaust‟.

19. What were the methods followed by Hitler to Kill Jews People?

  • He imprisoned people in gas chambers without light or ventilation, without giving them food or water.
  • He made them work like slaves in concentration camps.
  • He indulged in mass killings by using poisonous gas and mass shootings.
  • He designed ways of killing people irrespective of whether they were children, women or old people.
  • He employed his dictatorial power for mass massacres.
  • The ambition to win the entire world and popularize the Aryan race was one of the reasons for the World War II.

20. What were the Treaties signed due to cold war?

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organisation,
  • South East Asian Treaty Organisation and
  • Central East North Treaty Organisation of America,
  • whereas the Warsaw Pact was formed under the leadership of Russia.

21. What were the effects of cold war?

The cold war gave rise to many fear-ridden situations like the

  • Korean war,
  • Vietnamese war,
  • Suez Canal deadlock of 1956,
  • the Berlin crisis of 1961 and
  • Cuban missile dilemma of 1962. The cold war grew intense till 1985.

22. How did China Economy imporved?

  • After the revolution, community farming was adopted. Everyone enjoyed free education, health and sports facilities.
  • A lot of importance was given to science and technology in order to achieve industrial development.
  • The „Leap Forward‟ project was adopted.
  • Private property was converted to property of the society.
  • To correct these mistakes, Deng Zioping who came to power in 1979.

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