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10th Biology Important Question & Answers

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BIOLOGY

1. Explain salient features of multicellular algae

· They are non-vascular plants

· Body is float called thallus

· They are classified as ; green algae , red algae and brown algae

· Reproduction is by sexual , asexual and vegetative methods

2. Explain alternation of generation

The process of gametophyte and sporophyte being formed alternatively during life cycle is called alternation of generation

3. Write difference between gametophyte and sporophyte

Gametophyte

Sporophyte

Produce gametes

Produces spores

They are larger in number

They are smaller in size

They have haploid number

They have diploid number

They contain chloroplast and hence prepare their own food

They donot contain chloroplast and hence depend on gametophyte for food

4. Write difference between monocot and dicot

 

Monocot

Dicot

Seed

One seed

Two seed

Leaf

Parallel venation

Reticulate venation

Root

Fibrous root

Tap root

Germinations

Below the soil

Above the soil

Flower

Multiples of 4 or 5 petals

Multiples of 3

Vascular bundles

Scattered

In the form of ring

5. What is Inflorescence?

Special branch bearing cluster of flowers in angiosperms is called inflorescence

6.

Features

Pisces

Amphibians

Repttiles

Aves

Mammals

Digestive system

Complete

Complete

Complete

Complete

Complete

Respiration

Gills

Gills, lungs , moist skin

Lungs

Lungs

Lungs

Heart

2 Chambered

3 Chambered

3 or 4 C Chambered

4 Chambered

4 Chambered

Nervous system

10 pairs of cranial nerves

10 pairs of cranial nerves

12 pairs of cranial nerves

12 pairs of cranial nerves

12 pairs of cranial nerves

Fertilization

External

External

Internal

Internal

Internal

Oviparous / viviparous

Oviparous

Oviparous

Oviparous

Oviparous

viviparous

Cold blooded / warm blooded

Cold blooded

Cold blooded

Cold blooded

warm blooded

warm blooded

7. Why did Mendel Chose pea plant for his experiments?

· They can be easily grown

· They produce large number of seeds

· They are self-pollinating

8. Explain monohybrid cross with an example

9. Explain dihybrid cross with an example

10. Write difference between phenotype and genotype

Phenotype

Genotype

It is an expressed character genetically controlled

It is the combination of genes in an organism

Tall pea plant , dwarf pea plant are phenotype

TT, Tt, tt are genotype

11. What is incomplete dominance? Give an illustration

The deviation from mendilian inheritance is called incomplete dominance

Incomplete dominance takes place when both the genes are equally dominant in heterozygote. Hence phenotype ratio and genotype ration will be same.

12. What are nitrogenous bases (purine and pyrimidine’s)?

Purine and pyrimidine are nitrogenous bases.

Adenine (A) and guanine (G) are purine base

Thymine (T) and cytosine(C) are pyrimidine base.

13. Explain significance of DNA replication

DNA makes copies of itself within the nucleus during interphase stage of cell division. This is called DNA replication.

Significance: a. It carries genetic information

b. It indirectly synthesis proteins.

14. Define gene

Gene is the physical and functional unit of heredity

15. What is recombinant DNA technology?

It is the technique by which genes are manipulated in the laboratory to produce hybrid offsprings.

16. What is cloning?

It is the process of producing similar population of genetically identical individual invitro

17. What is DNA finger printing? Write its application

It is the technique used to identify and analyze the variations in various individual. It involves process called gel electrophoresis.

Application: It is used in forensic science to detect crime suspect

18. What are the applications of biotechnology?

· It is used to synthesis drugs like antibiotics, vaccines, etc.

· It is used in food processing

· To synthesis biopolymers.

19. What are the limitations of biotechnology OR Though biotechnology is boon to mankind it may cause serious threat in future. Why?

· Genetically modified foods are threatening to human and animal health

· It is a question of morality and ethics.

20. What are the cells present in xylem?

· Xylem parenchyma : Helps in lateral conduction of water and storage of metabolic substance

· Xylem fibres: They provide mechanical support and tensile strength

· Xylem vessels: They are elongated dead cells suitable for quick conduction of water

· Xylem tracheid: They are short structure usually found at the leaf tip.

21. What are the cells present in Phloem?

· Phloem parenchyma: They are living cells which perform similar function of parenchyma.

· Phloem fibres: They provide mechanical support and tensile strength

· Sieve tubes: They contain sieve plates through which food passes

· Companion cells: They are living cells which regulate passage of food through sieve tubes.

22. Write a note on epidermis OR Write the function of cuticle

· Epidermis of leaf and stem regulate passage of gases

· Some plants have covering substance called cuticle which control rate of transpiration.

23. Write a note on cardiac muscles

Cardiac muscles are found only in heart. These muscle fibres are elongated, cylindrical and branched. They are involuntary muscles known for high rhythmic contraction and relaxation.

24. Write the function of epithelial tissue

· They help in maintain body temp

· They help in absorbing nutrients

· ciliated epithelium help in movement of materials

· They help in secretion.

25. Write difference between striped muscles and unstriped muscles

Striped muscles

Unstriped muscles

They are attached to bones , hence called skeletal muscles

They are also called smooth muscles

They are multinucleated

They are uninucleated

They are voluntary muscles

They are involuntary muscles.

26. Write difference between voluntary muscles and involuntary muscles

Voluntary muscles

Involunatry muscles

These muscles act according to our will

These muscles do not act according to our will

They help in movement of limbs

They help in blood circulation , digestion , etc

Striped muscles are voluntary muscles

Unstriped muscles and cardiac muscles are involuntary muscles.

27. Explain ozone depletion.

It is the reduction of ozone layer in stratosphere layer. It is caused due to release of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) into atmosphere by human activity.

Effects: It effects’ natural balance of gases.

It affects physiological balance of plants and animals

Prevention: Avoid using equipment’s releasing CFC.

Reduce the use of foam plastic.

28. Write a note on global warming

It refers to rise in average temp of earth’s atmosphere due to effects of greenhouse gases.

It results in: Increase in sea level

It affects both aquatic and land life

It affects crop and food production.

29. Write a note on green house effect

The infrared rays released due to heating of earth by solar radiation are trapped by some gases, which result in increase of atmospheric temperature.

Greenhouse gases are oxides of nitrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, etc.

30. Write a note on acid rain

Precipitation of snow, rain or fog with a PH value less than 5.6 is called acid rain.

Effects: It causes effects to old buildings and monuments

It causes skin allergy and respiratory problems.

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