ANCIENT CIVILIZATION OF INDIA-8th Standard Social Science Notes


I. Complete the following sentences by using suitable words in the blanks:

1. The site near the fertile plains of the Bolan Pass is_____

2. People in the Harappan Civilization depended on farming and__________

3. The oldest Veda is ________

4. The most famous king of the Magadha dynasty is ______

Ans: (1) Mehrgarh (2) trade (3) Rig Veda (4) Bimbasara

II. Answer in brief the following questions: .

1. Describe the special features of Harappa town.

Ans: There are two or more than two parts in the cities of Harappa. The western part is narrow and at an elevated place which are assumed as citadel (fort). The eastern part is wide and at a low level. This area has been called the Lower Town. Every part had a wall made of burnt bricks. The walls were made strong by placing the bricks in an interlocking manner. Two stories buildings, swimming pool, granary and under drainage system are the main specialty of this civilization.

2. Write a paragraph about the great bath in Mohenjodaro.

Ans: The swimming pool at Mohenjodaro is called the Great bath. It is built of bricks so as to prevent seepage of water from the pool. The Bath has steps on two sides to go down, and has rooms all around. The water was probably supplied to the Bath by a well, and the used water was let out. Probably very important people took bath in this pool on special occasions.

3. How was the town planned?

Ans: Harappa had a perfect town planning. The lower town in the low lying area of the city was the place of habitation of the people, systematically laid-out houses, roads and drains are found here. The houses are one or two-storied built of bricks with strong walls. There were rooms all around the courtyard inside. The main door faced the street and none of the windows opened onto the streets. There were bathrooms in the houses. The cities had a neatly laid-out underground sewage system. The drains were built of bricks and covered with stone slabs. The gutter of each house was linked to the main drain outside, and enabled the flow of dirty water from the house to the main drain. Holes were created in the drains to enable timely cleaning of them.

4. Name the Vedas.

Ans: There are four Vedas. They are Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda.

5. Which were the yagnas and yagas common during the Vedic Age?

Aus: Rajasuya, Vajapeya, Sarvamedha and Ashwamedha were the yagnas and yagas common during the Vedic Age.

6. Describe the occupations of the people in the Later Vedic Age.

Ans: The people in the later Vedic Age had leant cultivation of rice. Many professions like trade, goldsmith, basket-weavers, rope-weavers, cloth-weavers, carpenters and potters. There were servants, astrologers, flute players, dancers and merchants.

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