CITIES AND OTHER COMMUNITIES
I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:
1. __________means a group of people living in a specific area and leading a common, social life.
2.The cornerstone of Indian society is ___________ community.
3.The tribes of the eastern region belong to the _________ race.
Ans: (1) Community; (2) village; (3) Mongolian.
II. Answer the following questions:
1. What is meant by a 'city'?
Ans: A city is the permanent settlement of people having high population density and variety of social strata.
2. What does industrialization suggest?
Ans: Industrialization means the change in technology used in production of materials and service. To be specific, this term is used to indicate the development of the manufacturing industry. Villagers migrated to cities for. They accepted the available opportunities to work. Geographical and industrial movement brought people closer. Railways and surface transport like buses brought people together. More than anything else, industrialization changed our social environment and created cities.
3. Explain the term 'village'.
Ans: A group of people leading a simple life in a limited land area is called a village. The village is small group of people who not only engage in agriculture for their livelihood but also follow it as a way of life.
4. How does anthropology define ‘tribe’?
Ans: Anthropology defines tribe as a group usually restricted to a specific geographical area, having its own language, cultural harmony and social organization.
5. Explain the features of a city.
Ans: The features of a city are as follows:
(i) Variety of social strata.
(iii) increased social movement,
(iv) greater emphasis on individualism, materialistic comfort and privacy,
(v) development of associations and unions
(vi) families of small size and
(vii) Fast pace of social reforms.
6. List the features of a rural community.
Ans: The features of a rural community as follows:
(i) small community,
(ii) harmonious relationships
(iii) social unity,
(iv) informal system of control,
(v) prominence of undivided families
(vi) prominence of agriculture,
(vii) influence of nature,
(viii) influence of neighbourhood,
(x) increased religious involvement, traditional opinions,
(xi) wide spread caste system,
(xii) illiteracy, poverty etc.
7. What are the problems of rural communities?
Ans: Some of the problems cf rural communities are as follows:
(i) Agricultural problems.
(ii) Problems related to cottage industries.
(iii) Illiteracy, poverty and unemployment.
(iv) Lack of proper health facilities.
(v) Lack of civic amenities.
8. Identify the unique features of tribal communities.
Ans: The unique features of tribal communities are-
(i) common geographic,
(ii) group of family/ cluster of families,
(iv) common language,
(v) simplicity and self-contained nature,
(vi) common religion,
(vii) common culture,
(viii) common name,
(ix) sense of unity and
9. How are the Indian tribes classified?
Ans: Indian tribes can be classified under three groups - Negro, Mongolian and Mediterranean. India tribes have been geographically classified into three groups. They are –
i) Tribals of the Eastern region,
ii) Tribals of the Central region, and
iii) Tribals of the Southern region. The tribes living in the Andaman and Nicobar islands are considered as the fourth group.