EUROPE IN THE MIDDLE AGES
I. Fill in the blanks:
1. The cultural bankruptcy of Europe is called __________
2. The owner of the land was called ___________
3. The person who maintained the land was called ___________
4. The weak person who was responsible for the maintenance of land was called _________
Ans. (1) Dark Age (2) noble (3) vassals. (4) labourers
II. Answer the following questions in brief:
1. What is feudal system?
Ans: Feudal System is political and economic system that prevailed during middle ages. The king donated land to the nobles. The nobles donated small areas of land to their subordinates called vassals. The vassals had labourers who were given land sufficient for survival as long as they worked with the vassals In a nutshell, the feudal system was an arrangement to gain specific service to the feudal lords.
2. List the advantages and disadvantages of the feudal system.
Ans: (A) The advantages of the feudal system are as follows:
1. Simplicity and tailor made administrative system is the main contribution.
2. Human protection was guaranteed.
3. The ruling party could not become autocratic as they were dependent on the vassals for military service.
4. There was notable progress in the economic system.
5. Man became aware of his duties and fundamental rights and savagery of the barbaric communities was controlled.
6. England, France and Germany encouraged literature.
7. Rules and regulations were created and this made the nobles to protect women, the weak and the Christian religion.
(B) The Disadvantages are as follows:
1. A class of aristocracy came into being.
2. Arguments and disagreements began among the aristocrats, nobles and vassals.
3. Sometimes the nobles started competing with the lords or the kings.
4. Many became traitors and posed a threat to their own regional unity.
5. Judicial system became weak and there was no rule of law.
6. The church and the state were at loggerheAns (quarrel)
3. Enumerate the reasons for the downfall of the feudal system.
Ans: The main reasons for the downfall of the feudal system are as follows:
1. The rise of powerful dynastic rule in England, France and Spain.
2. Development of regional languages, nationalism, lust for absolute power in the kings.
3. Military power and the Crusades hastened the fall of many systems.
4. Renaissance and reformation became the main reasons for the weakening of the feudal system.