1. INDIA OUR MOTHERLAND
Points to remember
Ø The name India is derived from the river Indus.
Ø The Total area of India is 32,87,263 Sq.Km
Ø The 23 ½ o N Latitude passes through the Central part of India
Ø The Country that lies to the south of India is Sri Lanka
Ø India has a Coastline of 6100 km.
Ø The Boundary line between India & China is called – Mc Mohan Line
Ø The Boundary line between India & Pakistan is called – Rad Cliff Line
Ø India Point is located in The great Nicobar islands.
Ø The southern Tip of India is Kanyakumari.
Ø NCT Means – National Capital Territory.
Ø The neighboring Countries of India are :-
ü In North: 1. China 2. Nepal 3. Bhutan
ü In North-West: 1. Pakistan 2. Afghanistan.
ü In East: 1. Myanmar 2. Bangladesh
ü In South : 1. Sri Lanka
ü In South-West: 1. Maldives.
2. PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA
1. What is the importance of Himalayas? Or
Describe the advantages of Himalayas?
The advantages/importance of Himalayas are
a. They provide protection to India by obstructing the cold winds from the northern parts of India.
b. They are the birth place of many rivers.
c. They facilitate Hydro – Electric power generation.
d. They are home to many divers’ plant and animal species.
e. They are a great treasure house of important minerals.
f. They attract tourists.
2. Write a short note on Shivalik range.
The Shivaliks are the most recent formation and are located in the southern part. They have lesser height and they are also called as the foot hills of Himalayas. These hills have narrow strips of plains or valleys which are called Doons. They are about 600-1500 meters above the sea level.
3. Why the northern plains are called as the depositional plains?
The northern plains are formed by the deposition of alluvial soils brought down by rivers which rise in Himalayas. So they are called as depositional plains.
4. Why the peninsular plateau has economic significance?
The peninsular plateau has economic significance. The reason for this is that it has rich deposition of minerals. As the rivers have man waterfalls, they are best suited for the production of hydro-electricity. The land of peninsular plateau is flat and fertile.
5. Describe the northern great plains.
a) The great plains of north are also called the ‘Sutlej Ganga plains’.
b) They are found between the Himalayan Mountain & peninsular plateau.
c) These plains stretch from the banks of the river Indus in the west to Brahmaputra Valleys in the East.
d) The East west of these plains are 2400 kms.
e) The widths of these plains are 70-500 kms.
f) These are formed by the alluvial soil deposited by the rivers.
6. Write a short note about the Islands of India.
There are totally 247 Islands belonging to India. of then, 204 are in the Bay of Bengal and 43 are in the Arabian sea. In the Gulf of Mannar there are coral Islands. The Andaman and Nicobar in the Bay of Bengal are formed by hard volcanic rocks. Lakshadweep Islands are coral Islands.
3. INDIAN MONSOON SEASONS & THEIR FATURES
1) The word monsoon derived from the Arabic word of ___________
a) Ponma b) Mausam c) Podu d) Ruthu
2) In India, Ganganagar in Rajasthan has recorded the maximum temperature of
a) 20oc b) 40oc c) 54oc d) 52oc
3) In the Northern plains of India, as were move from east to west, the rainfall goes on
a) Increasing b) decreasing c) changing d) without Change
4) During the season of retreating monsoons south India gets rain due to
a) North-east monsoon b) Cyclone
c) anti-cyclone d) convection winds
5) The lowest annual rainfall in India is recorded at ___________ in Rajasthan.
a) Kutch b) Baramer c) Royli d) Bujh
6) The Monsoon winds begin the retreat after mid-October because
a) The temperature increases & pressure decreases
b) The temperature decreases & pressure increases
c) Only A is correct
d) A and B both are correct
7) During October, the temperature starts dropping in the Northern Hemisphere because
a) The Sun ray’s fall vertically on the southern Hemisphere
b) The Sun rays fall obliquely on the Southern Hemisphere
c) The Sun rays fall vertically on the equator.
d) The sun rays fall vertically on the Northern Hemisphere.
8) The Summer rains in Bengal are called
a) Coffee Blossoms b) Kal-baisakhi c) Mango Showers d) Andhi
9) The eastern part of western Ghats is called
a) rain shadow b) desert c) rain excess d) Flood area
10) The pre-monsoon rains occur in _____ & _____ in Kerala.
a) March and April b) June to July c) April to May d) November to December
11) The Indian agriculture is said to be a gamble with
a) Farmer b) Climate c) weather d) monsoon
4. SOILS OF INDIA
1) What is soil erosion? What are its effects?
Transportation of surface soil by various natural forces is called soil erosion.
Effects of soil erosion
a) It leads to the accumulation of silt in the river beds and floods.
b) The rivers change their direction due to accumulation of silt.
c) The storage capacity of dams get reduces.
d) The volume of water percolating gets down
2) What are the causes for soil erosion?
a) Destruction of forests. b) Over grazing
c) Unscientific methods of cultivation d) Over irrigation
3) What is meant by Soil conservation? List out its methods
Prevention of soil erosion and protecting the fertility of the soil is known as conservation of soil.
a) Contour floughing
b) Construction of bunds around the agricultural land
c) Development of terraced agricultural filed
d) Prevention of deforestation and encouragement of afforestation
e) Control of live stock grazing
f) Planned use of water
4) How is laterite soil formed? Why does it look red in color?
The laterite soil is formed due to heavy rainfall and high temperature.
It looks red in color because of excessive rainfall; the minerals of the soils get washed of leaving behind ferric axide and aluminum in the surface.
5) What are the characteristics of mountain soil?
a) It has more decayed biomass.
b) It formed in the mountain flows down with rain to the plains below.
c) It is very rich in nitrogen and organic residues.
d) It is suitable for the growth of coffee, tea and spices.
6) What are the features of laterite soil?
a) Laterite soil is normally formed in areas gets more than 200 cms rainfall.
b) It is rich in ferric and aluminum.
c) It is less fertile
d) It lacks in Nitrogen and minerals.
7) What are the features of black soil?
a) Black soil is formed from the weathering of Igneous rock.
b) It contains more of clay particles.
c) It is fertile and capable of retaining water
d) It is more of lime and magnesium carbonates
5. FORESTS OF INDIA
1) Differentiate between monsoon forest and mangrove forests.
Monsoon forest are seen in the areas receiving 75 to 250 cms of rainfall. It is most widely distributed type of forest in India covering about 65.5% of total area under forests.
Mangrove forests are seen in areas along the deltas and coastal regions and estuaries of rivers that are subjected to tides. These forest are formed due to tides.
2) What are the mangrove forest of Ganga delta? Why does they call so?
The mangrove forest of the Gangetic delta are called Sunder bans. Because of the Sundari trees which are founds in plenty.
3) What are the features of desert vegetation? Where are they found in India?
The plants in the desert vegetation are deep rooted and consists mainly of thorny shrubs. This type of vegetation is found in areas getting less than 50cms of rainfall.
4) Describe the features of the Himalayan Alpine forest.
The Himalayan mountain region has various types of forests. As the height increases, the vegetation too changes. One of the most important features of the Alpine vegetation is that these plants have pointed leaves.
5) What do you mean conservation of forests? Explain its significance.
Protection of forests from human beings, animals and natural disasters is called conservation of forests.
Forests in India are gradually Shrinking due to expansion of agriculture, cattle grazing, construction of roads & rail routes, construction of irrigation projects, forest fires mining etc….Hence conservation of forests is needed.
6) What are the methods of conservation of forests? Methods of conservation of forests are
1) Clearing dried-up trees which can cause forest fire
2) Protecting the forest trees against diseases.
3) Planting saplings or sowing seeds.
4) Guarding against illegal cutting of trees.
5) Regulating grazing of domestic animals in forest.
7) What are significance of forests?
a) They provide raw materials to industries.
b) They provide fodder to the animals
c) They prevent soil erosion
d) They provide moisture and reduce temperature
e) They are home of many wild life
f) They attracts tourists
6. WATER RESOURCES
1) Damodar rivers is called, Sorrow of West Bengal.
2) Kosi river is called Sorrow of Bihar
3) Biggest irrigation project of Karnataka is Upper Krishna river project.
4) Hydro-electric project is constructed at Shivana Samudra on the river Cauvery.
5) Hirakund project is built across the River Mahanadi .
6) The other name of Bhakranangal project is GovindaSagar.
7) The other name of Tungabhadra project is Pampasangara.
8) The longest multi river valley project of India is Hirakud project.
9) River Mahanadi is called the sorrow of Orissa.
10) The highest multy river valley project of India is Bhakra Nangal project
11) The largest multy purpose river valley project of India is Nagarjun Sagara project
12) The Hydro-electricity forms 13.9 percent of the total power generated in the country.
13) Bhakra and Nangal dams are built across the river Sutlej
14) The country having the largest area under irrigation in the world is India.
15) To supply power from surplus states to deficit states National Power Grid (NPG) is established.
Built across the river
Joint venture of
Damodar river valley project
Bihar, west Bengal
Sorrow of Bengal
Jharkhand West Bengal
Bhakra nangal project
Sutlej at Bhakra and Nangal
Punjab, Haryana Rajasthan
Provide irrigation and hydro-electric power
Himachal Pradesh, Delhi
Kosi at Hanuman Nagar
Sorrow of Bihar
Irrigation and hydro electric power
Sorrow of Orissa
Orissa, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh
Tungabhadra, near Hospet
Irrigation and hydro electric power
Nagarjun Sagar project
Krishna, Andra Pradesh
Irrigation and hydro electric power
Upper Krishna project
Krishna near alamatti
Irrigation and hydro electric power
Narmada river valley project
Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh
Irrigation and hydro electric power
North Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Some part of Maharashtra
7. LAND USE AND AGRICULTURE
1) What is Kharif crop?
The crops grown during the season of south west monsoon is called Kharif crop.
2) What is meant by Rabi crop?
The crops grown during the season of winter is called Kharif crops.
3) What is meant by commercial farming?
Growing crops mainly for sale is called commercial crops.
4) What is meant by flori culture?
Growing flower for commercial purposes is called Floriculture.
5) What is Jade farming?
The crops grown during the period between Kharif and rabi is called Jade farming
6) Which state is known as the ‘Granary of wheat?’
Punjab is known as the Granary of wheat.
7) What is the temperature required for the cultivation of cotton?
8) What amount of annual rainfall is required for paddy cultivation?
100-200 cm of annual rainfall.
9) What is meant by Golden Revolution?
The rapid progress in the field of horticulture is known as golden revolution
10) What position does India hold in the cultivation of cotton?
· It ranks second in the production of cotton
Points to remember
· Utilizing land for a variety of purposes is known as land use
· Growing two or three different crops on the same land in a year is called intensive farming.
· The major commercial crops of India are cotton, Tobacco, sugarcane.
· The largest producer of paddy is in India – west Bengal.
· Nippani is popular for the production of tobacco in Karnataka.
· Tea grow well at an altitude of 1200 to 2400 mtr
· India has three cropping seasons.
· The Rabi crops are sown in the months of October – November
Fertile alluvial soil, clayey soil
West Bengal, UP, MP, Bihar, AP, Karnataka, TL
Sand mixed clayey black soil
UP, Punjab, Haryana, MP, Bihar, Rajasthan, Gujarat, North Karnataka
Fertile mixed with black soil
UP, Maharastra, TL, AP, Karnataka, Gujarat
AP, Gujarat, Karnataka, Bihar, TN, UP, Maharashtra
Cotton (Fiber, Kharif)
Black soil, Loamy soil
Maharashtra, Gujarat, AP, Haryana, Karnataka, MP
Fertile soil with rich organic matter
Assam, West Bengal Kerala, TN
8. MINERAL & POWER RESOURCES.
1) What is meant by minerals?
A compound of a naturally available substances with specific chemical composition is called mineral.
2) Which state has the largest Iron ore in India?
Jharkhand has a largest Iron ore depositor.
3) Which metal is extracted from Bauxite?
Aluminum is extracted from bauxite.
4) Which mineral is called the ‘Black Diamond’?
Coal is called Black Diamond
5) Which metal is called ‘liquid Gold’?
Petroleum is called liquid Gold.
6) What is the use of Beryllium?
Beryllium oxide is used as a catalyst or moderator in nuclear reactors producing nuclear energy.
7) Where is thorium found in India?
Thorium is found in Kerala, Bihar, Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan
8) What is meant by Global warming?
The considerable increase in temperature due to the green house effect in atmosphere is called Global warming.
9) Where did petroleum discover first in India?
At Digboi in Assam petroleum first discover in India.
10) Why does manganese call Ferro-alloy?
Because it is smelted with iron ore to get the steel
11) Why does petroleum call Liquid Gold?
Because, it is used in all economic activities.
12) Which is the largest produced of Gold in India?
Hatti Gold mines at Raichur in Karnataka.
9. TRANSPORT SYSTEM OF INDIA
1) How are the roads useful in economic development of India [Advantages]
a) Transport provides goods and services from the place of production to the place of demand.
b) Movement of agricultural produce by farmers to the market is possible only by roadways
c) Essential commodities are transported with the help of roads.
d) The role of road transport in the economic development of our contry is significant.
e) Roads are feeders to the railways.
f) Roads are essential for the developments of industries.
g) Roads are convenient for short distance.
2) Mention the problems of Road transport.
a) Many villages and districts roads become unfit for transportation in rainy season.
b) Road transport is cause of environmental pollution.
c) Road transport causes to increases the density of vehicles and accidents.
d) Roads are subjected to severe wear and tear due to rain, floods and cyclones every year.
e) Construction and management of roads are not satisfactory.
f) The severe deficiency of the basic need along the roadside is seen all over the country.
3) What are the four types of major roads? Explain briefly
1) National Highways.
2) State Highways.
3) District roads.
4) Village roads.
1. National Highways: These are the important roads, they connect the capitals of states and the ports. The central Government is responsible for the construction and maintains of these roads.
2. State Highways: The state Government constructs and maintains these roads.
3. District Roads: These roads connect the Taluk head quarters with the state and National High ways.
4. Village roads: They are interior roads and connect villages with other roads.
4) Make a list of major ports in India.
Major ports of India
1) Kandla: It is in the Gulf of Kachchh.
2) Mumbai: It is called the ‘Gate way of India’
3) Marmagoa: It is located at the entrance of Zuari estuary in Goa.
4) New Mangalore port: Most important port of Karnataka.
5) Kochi: It is a commercial port located in Kerala.
6) Tuticorin: It is located in Tamil Nadu.
7) Chennai: It is the oldest port of India.
8) Vishakhapatnam: It is natural port which located in Andra Pradesh.
9) Paradeep: It is recently developed port located in Odisha.
10) Kolkata: It is a natural harbor. This port is called “Tea Port of India”.
11) Haldia: It is newly developed port on the coast of Bay of Bengal.
10. MAJOR INDUSTRIES OF INDIA
1) What are the factors that influence the location the industry?
a) Availability of raw materials.
b) Availability of power resources.
c) Transport and communication facilities
d) Availability of labor
e) Water resource
f) Marketing facilities.
g) Government policies
2) What are the effects of biotechnology on agriculture?
The development in Biotechnology has started revolution in agriculture. Through the procedure of grafting in plants and animals and by the use of new seeds, medicines, fertilizers, organic fertilizers, hybrid seeds, soya beans, maize, cotton etc have been developed. In recent times, plant biotechnology, environmental biodiversity and medical bio technology are also being used.
3) Explain the distribution of cotton textile industries in India.
· Cotton textile industries are distributed in 175 towns and cities across the country.
· Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh have maximum number of cotton textile industries.
· Mumbai has a highest number of cotton mills. Hence it is called “Manchester of India”, “cotton polis of India”.
· In addition, Nagpur, Sholapur, Kolkata, Indore, Surratt etc have cotton textile industries.
· In Karnataka Davanagere have more cotton textiles; hence it is called Manchester of Karnataka.
1) What is India’s position in the world with regard to production of Sugar?
India ranks second after Brazil in the production of Sugar.
2) What is the raw material used in the manufacture of Paper?
The raw materials used in Manufacture of paper are bamboo, wood pulp and grass.
3) Which industry is progressing rapidly in India at present?
At present the most rapidly progressing industry in India is Information Technology (IT).
4) Which city is called the Silicon city of India?
Bangaluru is called the Silicon city of India.
5) What is the contribution of Industry to India’s National income?
Industries contributions to India’s national income is about 35%
6) Which district is known as ‘Java of India’?
Gorakhpur of Uttar Pradesh is known as Java of India.
7) From where does India import News print paper?
India imports news print paper from Norway.
8) When did software technology park was establish?
In 1991 A.D
9) What is meant by Industrial zones?
Certain areas of the country have more concentration of industries are called Industrial zones.
10) Which industry is considered to be a basic industry?
Iron & Steel industry is considered to be a basic industry.
1. What is GIS? Explain.
Geographical Information System is a system which can collect information, accumulate, enable to use when required, modify and show the data of the earth’s surface.
2. What are the uses of GIS?
a) GIS technology based on maps are more attractive and give accurate information.
b) Various types of geographical, social & economic information can be easily analyzed and models can be created.
c) It is used to give advance intimation regarding weather phenomena.
d) Maps can be created without the need of cartographer in a very short time and maps can be modified.
3. What is Global Positioning System (GPS)?
It is a system based on the information obtained from satellites, the distance between the individual and satellites is accurately calculated and the location of the person to the exact latitude, longitude & height above sea level is given, Because of this, the GPS is also called ‘path finder’.
4. How is India trying to become self-sufficient in GPS communication?
GPS is useful in not only assessing the Geographical position of natural calamities, but also from the point of view of national security. Hence India has launched seven satellites to have its own local GPS.
5. Write about Remote Sensing Technology.
The technology which gathers data from a distance without physically touching the objects is called Remote Sensing Technology. For this, picture of the earth are taken from planes and satellites using powerful cameras, using these picture data about the earth are collected.
6. Mention the importance of communication.
a) People can be aware of policies of the Government.
b) By educating people through mass media about agriculture, industry and speedy development is possible.
c) Mass communication media have been fundamental requirement of trade and commerce.
d) Mass media can be utilized to strengthen the unity, integration and stability in the country.
12. NATURAL DISASTERS
1) What are natural disasters?
Naturally occurring destructive incidents resulting in loss of human life and property are called natural disasters. Eg: Earthquakes, Cyclones, Volcanic eruption etc.
2) What are the effects of Cyclones?
a) They cause large scale deaths.
b) Ocean tides inundate the inland water bodies and make them salty.
c) Crops get totally destroyed.
d) Transport links, electricity supply and daily life of the people get affected badly.
e) Cyclone hit area suffer from infectious diseases, leading to huge causalities.
3) What is Earthquakes?
Earthquakes are one of the most important natural calamities occurring on the land surface. Vibrate or movement of the upper layers of the earth due to the pressure created inside is called Earthquake.
4) What are the causes of floods?
a) Excessive rainfall.
b) Accumulation of silt in the rivers.
c) Changing the direction of rivers.
d) Improperly built dams
5) What are the reasons for landslides?
a) Constantly flowing water and tides result in landslides in mountain and coastal area
b) Construction of railways, roadways and cannels in steep mountain areas.
c) Collection of loose soil on clay soil layer.
d) Deforestation and deep tilling of the slopes.
6) What are the effects of landslide?
a) Flow of smaller rivers is disturbed.
b) Transportation is affected.
c) Stream and many plants get submerged
d) Landslides can cause loss of life and damage of property.
13. POPULATION OF INDIA
1) What is meant by ‘Bimaru’ states? Why does they call so?
Bihar, Madya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh are called Bimaru states, the term is called to refer to the bad status of the economy in these states. These states have a high growth rate of population, low rate of economic development, low literacy rate etc.
2) What are the factors influencing the distribution of population?
The distribution of population in India is influenced by various geographical, economic, political and social factors. They are
· Distribution of rain
· Minerals and transport facilities
· Availability of Power and industrial development etc
3) What are the measures taken to control population?
a) Family welfare planning
b) Women welfare projects
c) Prevention of infant mortality
d) Publicity and advertisements
e) Creating awareness among rural people etc.
4) How does rural to Urban migration affect the Urban population?
Migration causes a variety of problems. They are:
a) Formations of slums
b) It leads immoral and criminal activities
c) Pressure mounts on basic amenities
d) Increase of density of population which leads many problems.
5) How can we control migration?
a) Establishing of industrial areas.
b) Providing basic amenities to the rural area and small towns
c) Improving transport facilities between cities and rural areas
d) Establishment of satellite town outside of the city limits
6) What are the types of internal migration?
a) Rural – Rural migration
b) Rural – Urban migration
c) Urban – Rural migration
d) Urban – Urban migration