01. Advent of Europeans to India
Answer the following questions in 2-3 sentences each
1. “Scientific developments led to sea voyages” Justify
Ans :- The invention of new scientific instruments like the compass, gun powder, naval equipments, maps. etc….. helped the sailors in their sea voyages. It led to the discovers of new sea routes.
2. How was the European trade conducted with India in the beginning?
Ans:- The European trade was carried on via The Persian gulf, Red sea and through the north-western regions of India during the middle ages. The trade was carried on the rich cities of Venice, Geneva, Milan and Florence. Italy acted as a distribution centre for the spices obtained from India.
3. When and between whom was the Battle of Plessey fought? What were its results?
Ans :- The Battle of Plessey was fought in 1757, between Siraj-Ud-Daula and the British.
· The English Army under the leadership of Robert Clive, defeated the Nawab Siraj-Ud-Daula.
· Mir Jafar was made the Nawab of Bengal.
· The British got Zamindari rights over 24 paraganas.
4. Describe the system of Dual Government.
Ans: The East Indian company’s Governor, Robert clive was introduced the system of Dual Government in 1765 A.D. in Bengal. According to this, the English got the rights to collect land revenue & importing of Justice & other administrative functions were to be carried on by the Nawab.
5. Give reasons for the discovery of new sea routes to India.
· The navigators were encouraged by Europeans.
· New scientific, discoveries like compass, gun powder, maps etc. were helped.
· The stories of wealth & interest of missionaries also helped.
6. When & between whom was the battle of Buxar fought? what were the results?
The Battle of Buxar was fought in 1764 between the British and confederate army of the mughal emperor shah alam, Siraj-Ud-Daula & Mir Qasim.
· Bihar, Orissa and Bengal provinces were acquired by the British.
· British got the Diwani rights of these provinces from the Mughal Emperor.
2. KANNADA SPEAKING AREAS DURING THE COLONIAL RULE
Answer the following questions in 2-3 sentences.
1) What was the cause for the second Mysore war?
Ans: Hyder Ali was attacked by the Marathas. The English did not come to his help according to the treaty of Madras. This made Hyder Ali dislike & distrust them. But Governor General warren Hastings broke the alliance in 1780. The British captured Mahe this led to the II Anglo Mysore war.
2) Which are the areas of Hyderbad Karnataka?
Ans: Today’s Bidar, Gulbarga, Yadgiri & Raichur which were under the direct rule of the Nizam, have been identified as the regions of Hyderabad Karnataka.
3) Explain the friendship between the British and Venkatappa Nayaka of Ikkeri.
Ans: The English relation with south canara were started in 1737. They obtained permission to trade from Bidanur from Venkatappa Nayaka. In certain places they even gained monopoly to trade in pepper & caradomom.
4) Describe the role of Guddemane Appayya gowda in the coorg mutiny.
Guddemane Appayya Gowda led a struggle under his leadership started a peasant’s revolts in lower coorg. This revolt was suppressed by the English through the Diwans of coorg. The British projected this as a revolt. Many activists were arrested & hanged to death.
5) What was the condition of Kannada speaking regions when the English came to India?
· Few Kannada speaking regions were under the control of native rulers like the Marathas, the Nizam of Hyderabad and Nawab of carnatic.
· Some other regions were under the control of Bombay & Madras presidencies.
6) How did the Hyder Ali fight against the English during the Anglo- Mysore Wars?
· The English attacked on the Mysore State with the help of Nizam and Marathas
· Hyder Ali of Mysore was able to win the support of Nizam and Marathas.
· Hyder Ali attacked captured Madras With the help of Nizam and Marathas.
· Sir Eyre Coote defeated Hyder Ali with the help of Nizam and Marathas in 1781 A.D.
7. What were the terms of the treaty of Madras?
· The English and Hyder Ali both agreed to return the territories that they had captured from each other.
· The English promised to assist Hyder Ali when he attacked by his enemies.
8. What were the results of II Anglo Mysore war?
· Sir Eyre coote was defeated Hyder Ali with the help of the Nizam and Marathas in 1781.
· The war led to the treaty of Mangalore in 1784 A.D.
9. What were the results of III Anglo Mysore war (Treaty of Srirangapatna)
· Tippu lost the war & forced to sign the Treaty of Srirangapatna in 1792.
· He gave up half of the the territories to the enemies.
· He had to pay heavy war indemnity 330 lakhs to the English.
· The English kept two of his sons a hostages until he pay war indemnity.
· The English took some regions of Tamil Nadu and Malabar.
10. What were the results of IVth Anglo- Mysore war?
· Tippu was killed by the British.
· Krishnaraja wodeyar III became the ruler of the Mysore.
· Maximum territory of mysore was divided among the English & Nijam.
· Krishnaraja wodeyar III accepted subsidiary Alliance & Secured old Mysore state.
03. FOLK HISTORY
1. What is Oral History?
The History created by oral description to narrate the lives of ordinary
People is called Oral History.
2. Name the Yugas which we have in India History?
* Tretayuga * Dwaparyuga * Kaliyuga
3. What is meant by Kalachakra ?
Viewing history in a cyclic manner is called Kalachakra.
4. What is simple linear model ?
The method of writing of history which was followed by the westerners is called simple Linear model.
5. What is meant by Yuga ?
The completion of one Kalachakra Cycle is called Yuga.
6. In the Bellary region who is more popular than Krishnadevaraya among the common people?
Kumararama is more popular than the Krishnadevaraya among the common people in the Bellary Region.
7. What is more important than evidences in oral history ?
Sensiblity is more important than evidences in oral history.
8. What is boon to the histotian ?
Oral source is a boon to the Historians
9. What history has gained a lot of importance In recent year?
The Study of the history of common people have gained a lot of importance in recent years.
04. THE FOUNDATION OF BRITISH ADMINISTRATION AND IT’S EFFECT’S
1. Who introduced the doctrine of subsidiary alliance?
Lord Wellesley introduced Doctrine of subsidiary Alliance.
2. Who was the first ruler to accept the subsidiary alliance?
The Nizam of Hayderabad was the first ruler to accept the subsidiary alliance.
3. Which treaty ended the first Anglo-Maratha war?
The first Anglo-Martha war came to an end in 1782 by the treaty of Salbai.
4. Which treaty ended the second Anglo-Maratha war?
The second Anglo-Maratha war came to an end by the treaty of Bassein
5. Who was known as the “Lion of Punjab”?
The sikh king Ranjit Sing was known as the Lion of Punjab
6. What is Khalsa?
Ans: Kalsa is the army of the Sikha
7. When was the Regulating Act passed?
Regulating Act was pssed in 1773.
8. When was Dual Government withdrawn?
Dual government withdrawn by the Regulating Act of 1773
9. Which Act created a federal structure of India?
The Government of India Act of 1935 created a federal structure in India.
10. Which Act became the basis of the Indian constitution?
The Government of India Act of 1935 became the basis of the Indian constitution.
11. Which act permitted the establishment of Supreme court of India?
The Regulating Act permitted the establishment of the Supreme court in India
12. Which act provided for separate electoral constituency based on religion?
The Act of 1909 was provided for separate electoral constituency based on religion.
13. Who succeeded Peshwa madhav Rao I?
Peshwa Narayan Rao.
14. Under which Act Bicameral Governments were brought into practice in provinces?
Act of 1919.
15. Who was the first Governor General of India?
5. SOCIAL & RELIGIOUS REFORMS
1) What are the preaching’s of Brahma Samaja?
· It opposed idol worship and polytheism
· It encouraged monotheism
· It advocated modern science and English education
· It opposed exploitation of women, practice of sati and child marriage
2) Analyse the call of Dayananda Saraswati to ‘Return to the Vedas’.
Aryasamaja was established by Dayananda Saraswati. He travelled throughout the Country giving lectures and emphasized that the Vedas were the source of trust and knowledge. In this context, he advised people to ‘Return to the Vedas’.
3) Analyze the objective of the Aligarh movement
Its main objective was to provide religious education along with western educations, and the create a modern society through western education. Sir Syed remained outside the National congress and brought the Muslim community together. He supported female literacy & condemned polygamy.
4) Explain the vision of Ramakrishna mission.
The main objective of this organization was to spread the message of equality of all religions and to put that into practice. Ramakrishna mission is continuing to narture culture through education and social service for achievement of salvation. The mingling of ancient, modern western thinkers was the vision of Ramakrishna mission.
5) ‘Swamy Vivekananda was a great inspiration to the youth’ Explain.
Swamy Vivekananda was a great evolutional monk, who opens eyes of Indian are to the importance of loving life. He stressed the significance of the individual, his presence and ability. He upheld the greatness of religions. He introduced India’s culture to the world. His life was a role model to the youth.
6) Which are the reforms brought about by Annie Besant?
· Annie Besant aroused pride in Indian culture through her lectures.
· She attempted to establish equality. Universal brotherhood and harmony in society.
· She gave full support to the freedom movement of India
· She started the ‘Home Rule Movements’
7) What are the main principles of Theosophical Society?
· To appreciate the truth in all religions.
· To promote a sense of equality and brotherhood among one and all
· Hinduism being the ancient thought, was to be popularized.
· Philosophy and practice of Hinduism were to be spread to all parts of the world.
6. THE FIRST WAR OF INDIAN INDEPENDENCE
1) How did the administrative and economic factor instigate the first war of Indian Independence?
The administrative and Economic factors majorly instigated on first war of Indian Independence
· The British brought into force new civil and criminal laws, which were applicable to Indians only.
· English became the language of the courts.
· Most of the time the British Judges favored to the British
· India was forced to became a supplier of raw material and a market for England’s cheap factory made goods.
· The English were deprived many people including zamindars and weavers of their land and poverty by introducing Doctrine of lapse.
· The Inam commission appointed by the Government, confiscated lands from rich landlords.
2) What were the factors that disturbed the religious sentiments of the soldiers during 1857 revolt?
· The reformers like abolition of sati, child marriage and encouragement of widow remarriage made Indians suspicious of the British.
· The Orthodox Hindu and Muslims felt that the younger generations were not playing any aspect to the elders were following the western life style.
· They thought the English wanted to bring in their culture in place of Indian culture.
· The introduction of network of telegraph and railway lines looked like efforts to chain the country and westernize it.
3) Make a list of the reasons for the failure of the revolt.
The first war of Indian independence was failed due to various reasons.
· The movement did not spread to the whole country.
· This struggle was intended to protect the interest of a few rather than getting freedom for the country
· Instead of being an organized struggle, it erupted due to certain unexpected reasons.
· There was no proper leadership
· Lack of strategy and expertisness among Indian soldiers.
4) List out the effects of the first war of Indian Independence.
· The freedom struggle put an end to the administration of the East Indian Company.
· The Queen of England took over administration
· The agreements made by the East India Company with the Kings were accepted
· Ambitious expansion plans had to be given up
· A stable government had to be provided to India.
· There would be equality under law
· Nationalism of Indians was kindled.
· Indians search for struggle through alternative
5) What were the features of the declaration of the British Queen in 1858?
In 1858, The Queen of England made an announcement. This declaration has been called India’s ‘Magna Carta’. The following features included it.
· The agreement made by the East India Company with the kings were accepted.
· Ambitious expansion plans had to be given up
· A stable government had to be provided to India
· There would be equality among law
· The government would not be interfere in religious matters of the country.
7. EFFECTS OF BRITISH RULE IN INDIA
1) How did the news paper play a role in bringing new awareness in Indians?
The news paper played a very important role in the Indian National Movement. Their role in creating national awareness was tremendous. The newspapers were very critical of the Government and questioned the functioning of the government. The news paper reflected the thinking of the people. The news papers advocated a nationalistic attitude.
2) Developments in transport and communication led to the independence struggle. Discuss.
· The British developed transport and communication in India to promote self interest.
· Every nook and corner of the country was linked.
· The first railway line from Mumbai to Thane was laid in 1853.
· It helped the transportation of raw materials, finished goods and the army.
· It helped in the mass movements of people and goods bringing them closed and bringing about a national integrity among the Indias.
3) Bright out the features of the Rytwari system
· Rytwari system was introduced in Madras, Mumbai, Sindh, Bihar & Assam
· The farmers acquired rights to ownership of the land.
· They had to pay tax based on the area of the land.
· When the farmers failed to pay the tax, they lost the rights to the land.
· All disputes related to the land were to be settled in courts instead of at the village Panchayat.
4) How were Indians benefitted by the introduction of English Education?
· The English education created awareness about western thinking, practices and ideas.
· Aroused national sentiments in Indians.
· Enabled the Indians to analyze the short comings of their society and work for its reformation.
· Created leadership in Indian society.
· Influenced the growth of literature in Indian languages.
· English emerged as a common language of communication among the Indians.
5) What was the impact of British rule on India?
· The British introduced a uniform system of administration in the country.
· Indian industries were ruined resulting in unemployment and starvation
· Introduction of western education opened the gates of western knowledge and science.
· The British developed roads, railways, port and telegraph in the country bringing the people of different parts of India closer and developing a sense of unity among them.
· The introduction of news papers helped to create awareness among the people.
8 THE FREEDOM STRUGGLE
1) What were the demands put forward by the moderates to the British?
The first twenty years of the congress is called moderate age. The moderates trusted the British administration and their fairness. They placed their requests before the government within the constitutional framework. The demands related to development of industries, reduction of military expenditure, improvement in education, developing agriculture, more representation to Indians in government and civil services etc.
2) Explain the role of moderates in the freedom struggle/
The first phase of freedom struggle from 1885 to 1905 is known as the moderate period. The moderate leaders believed in constitutional methods and had faith in the fair sense of the British Government. The moderates taught people about the political situation. They conducted meeting discussed problem and placed before the Government various requests related to development of industries. Reduction of military expenses, improvement in educational standards, forcing in British Government to take up studies about poverty in the country etc. for the first time, the moderates critically analysed the ill-effects of the British rule in India. They placed before the people facts and figures about the drain of Indian wealth into England.
3) How did Dada Bhai Naoroji expose the economic exploitation of the Indian by the British?
Dadabhai Naoroji created an awakening in the minds of the people by explaining how the British rule alone was responsible for the poverty of India. He put forward the ‘Drain Theory’ to show how the British drained the country of its wealth. He maintained the encouraging imports and reducing exports created a situation unfavorable to India leading to drain of wealth. Further, India had to bear the burden of paying wages, pension and administrative expense of British officials. Due to this a lot of wealth was flowing into England.
4) Explain the role of Balgangadhar Tilak in the freedom struggle.
Balagangadhar Tilak was the foremost leader of the Extremists in the congress. He disliked the methods of the moderates. He believed the methods of the Extremists. He believed that submitting petitions and waiting for the British Government to fulfill those demands will be of no use. He wanted the people to force the Government through mass action. He declared “Swaraj is my birth right, I shall have it”. He used Ganesha and Shivaji festivals to organize the common people to instill the spirit of freedom in them. He also published ‘Kesari’ a news paper in Marathi and Maratha, an English news paper. Through these papers he called for active participation in the fight for freedom. He was imprisoned for his revolutionary activities and the articles he wrote.
5) Explain the role of revolutionaries in the freedom struggle.
The revolutionaries dreamt of the totally free India. They strongly believed that the British could be thrown out the India only by violent means. They started establishing secret organizations and had their branches in India and abroad. They collected money, brought weapons and trained their members in armed struggle. ‘Anusheelana Samithi’ & ‘Abhinav Bharat’ were important organizations of their kind. They used bombs and fire arms to achieve their objectives. Many of them were captured and imprisoned. Some of them were even hanged. But the goal of achieving freedom through armed struggle could not be realized the revolutionaries. However, they were a powerful source of inspiration for the national freedom movement. They inspired many Indians by their courage and the sacrifices they made.
6) Explain the contributions of Jawaharlal Nehru after becoming the prime minister.
· Nehru was the architect of industrialization of Modern India.
· Nehru tried to bring together all the princely states and merge them with Indian union along with sardar Vallaba bhai patel.
· Laid foundation for democracy by recognizing all states on the basis of language.
· Mixed economy was his contribution to India.
· He was the pioneer of five year plans.
· Non-alignment policy regarding foreign policy is his contribution
· Panchasheela principles to promote peace and harmony
7) What were the reasons for the failure of the Quite India Movement?
a) The government took repressive action against congress leaders.
b) Most of the congress leaders were arrested including Gandhiji.
c) The congress organization was banned and its offices were sealed.
d) As there was no leader to guide the movement, the people took law into their hand.
e) The movement did not remain peaceful.
f) The Muslim league did not support this movement
8) Give an account of the achievements of Subhash Chandra Bose in freedom struggle.
The most prominent among the revolutionary fighters of India was Subhash Chandra Bose
a) Subhash Chandra Bose travelled to Vienna, Berlin, Rome, Istanbul and other countries and inspired Indians there to support their motherland.
b) He played an important role in establishing the congress socialist party with Nehru in 1934.
c) He was elected as the president of the congress at the Haripura Session.
d) Though being a follower of Gandhiji he was also a critic of Gandhiji principles.
e) In 1938 Subhash Chandra Bose got elected as the president of congress in spite of the opposition from Gandhiji.
f) Subhash Chandra Bose Joined hands with Ras Bihari Bose who had organized Indian to fight against British.
g) He gave the call ‘Delhi Chalo’ & urged the Indians “Give me Blood, I Will give you freedom”.
h) By 1944, the INA Army entered the Indian Sub-Continent and occupied Kohima & Imphal.
i) INA Captured 10,000 Sq miles of Manipur territory after a battle with British.
j) It was the first Indian Region liberated & it was an exciting achievement of INA. Thus Subhash Chandra Bose role is unforgettable.
9. Describe the tribal revolt in the Indian Freedom Struggle.
The tax and Forest Act implemented by the British East India Company provoked the tribal revolt. The Santala Revolt, the Munda Movement & Halagali Hunters in Karnataka are noteworthy.
The Santal tribal revolt can be termed India’s first movement. These tribal linked in Bengal and Orissa hillocks the permanent land system enforced by the British, resulted in the tribal becoming destitute and were exploited by the landlords, money lenders and company enraged by this the santala agitated and looted. The landlords and prominent citizens. The rioters killed their army. The Govt. used to control the revolt and was successful. The revolt ended, but it sent its voices to many similar protesters later.
Points to remember
- The Indian National Congress was established in the year -1885.
- The person who talked about the ‘wealth drain’ was – Dadabhai Naorji.
- “Swaraj is my birth right, I will get it” was declared by- Balagangadhar Tilak.
- The Ali brother started the movement – Khilafat movement.
- Separate nation for Muslims was proposed by – Mohammed Ali Jinnah.
- The Lahore session of the Indian National Congress that took place in 1929 was presided by- Jawaharlal Nehru.
- The person who started “Mahad” and Kalaram Temle movement was – B R Ambedkar
- The Jhansi regiment of INA was headed by captain Lakshmi.
- Founder of the Indian National Congress was – A.O-Hume.
- The publisher of the Maratha paper was- Balagangadhar Tilak.
- Sawarkar party was established in the year -1922.
- The president of Indian National congress at Haripur session was – Subhash Chandra Bose.
- The Iron man of India – Sardar Vallababhai Patel
- Lord Lytton brought Domestic papers control Act in 1878.
- The first twenty years of the beginning of congress it called as – Moderate Age
- Subhas Chandr Bose was kept under house arrest in – Calcutta
- Gandhiji wrote about his principles in the news paper – Hind Swaraj
- The Indian National congress had its first session at – Mumbai
- The historic Dandi march started from Sabaramati Asharm
- The untouchables were called Harijanas by Gandhi.
9. INDIA AFTER INDEPENDENCE
1) How did the country deal with the problems of Refugees?
a) The government of India provided shelter, employment, lands, education, health care and conducive environment to the refugees.
b) They were rehabilitated in the various states of India.
c) People from Pakistan were settled in Orissa under the Dandakaranya project
d) The Chakmar from Bangladesh migrated to Tripura state.
e) Sreelankan refugees were rehabilitated in the three Southern states.
f) The Tibatian refugees in 1954 have been settled in 10 states of India.
2) How was Goa liberated from Portuguese?
Goa was under the imperialist rule of Portuguese to be handed over to India. But the Portuguese brought in additional troops from Africa and Europe. They tried to suppress the liberation movement in Goa in 1955. Satyagrahis from different parts of India gathered in Goa and began liberation movement demanding the imperialists to quit Goa. In 1961, the Indian Army intervened and took Goa under its control, Goa remained a Union territory till 1987, became a state later on.
3) Explain the role of Sardar patel in Integration of Provinces.
When the British left India, there were 562 provinces. The Government of India invited all the provinces to join the union. There who joined were given a privy purse based on the income of the province. During the process of integration, Junagadh, Hyderabad, Jammu and Kashmir offered stiff resistance. After the king of Janagadh, who wanted to merge with Pakistan, fled from the kingdom as a result of people protests the Indian army occupied Janagadh and merged it with India. The king of Jammu and Kashmir wanted to be independent but Pakistan incited the tribal’s in an attempt to force the king to merge with Pakistan on a request from the king, the Indian Government Merged Jammu and Kashmir with India. In the case of Hyderabad, force was used to make the Nizam accede to India for resolving all these problems
Points to Remember
· The last Governor General of British India was Lord Mountbatten
· The firms home minister of Independent India was Sardar Vallababai Patel
· A temporary Government was formed on 15th Aug 1947
· The Indian constitution was adopted on 26th Jan 1950
· 42nd Amendment added - secularism and socialist
· The forgien policy of India is - Non Alignment policy
· The King of Jammu and Kashmir was - Harising
· Pondicherry joined India as a union territory in – 1963
· The linguistic reorganization of India took place in – 1956
· The chairman of Re-Organization committee was – Fazal Ali
10. THE POLITICAL DIMENSIONS OF 20TH CENTURY
1) Explain the immediate cause for world war I.
The first world war took place between 28th July 1914 to 11th November 1918. The immediate reason for the world war I was the Assassination of the Austrian prince, Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand on 28th July 1914. This incident created a rift between the two countries immediately.
2) What were the results of the First World War?
· In 1919, the Alliance signed a humiliating Versailles treaty.
· Austria- Hungary and Ottoman Kingdoms lost their identity.
· German lost most of its area
· Many small independent Nations came into being
· The League of Nations was established.
3) What were the causes for World War II?
· The imperialist and expansionist attitude of Germany, Japan and Italy.
· Failure of the league of Nation to control the aggressive policies of dictators
· The entry of Germany and Russia into secret alliance
4) What is meant by cold war?
The undeclared war between the group of socialist countries along with USSR and the USA is called cold war.
After the Second World War, the state of constant fear, hatred, jealousy and anxiety in political, economic, military and other affairs between the Global power is called cold war.
5) Explain how America overcome its economic depression?
Franklin D. Roosevelt became the president of U.S.A. He introduced the economic reform called “The New Deal”. According to this policy industries reduced the number of working hours and increased the pay for workers compensation was paid to the employers. Within a decade, the U.S.A. once again became an economic power.
6) Why did Russia withdraw from the First World War?
The Socialist revolution of November 1917 prompted Russia to arrive at a ceasefire agreement with Germany and it withdrew from the war.
7) What was the results of Versailles treaty?
Austria – Hungary and the ottoman Kingdoms lost their identity. Germany lost most of its area. The map of Europe changed drastically, many new independent Nations arose and the League of Nations was established.
8) What led the growth of dictatorship in Germany?
Unemployment, poverty and slum development led to widespread dissatisfaction in Germany. This was exploited by German industrialists for their own profit. This atmosphere enabled the growth of dictatorship in Germany.
Answer the following questions in a word or sentence each.
1. What inspired the Russian to revolt against the Czars?
The defeat of Russia by a small country like Japan in 1905, inspired the Russians to rise in rebellion against the Czars.
2. What is Holocaust?
The mass massacre of Jews in gas chambers and mass shootings was called Holocaust.
3. Who introduced five years plans in Russia?
Stalin was the responsible for the introduction of Five years plan in Russia.
4. What was the slogan of October Revolution?
‘Peace, food and Land’ was the slogan of the October Revolution.
5. What are ‘Glasnost and Perestroika’?
These are the reforms introduced by the Gorbachev the president of Russia.
6. What was the ‘Leap Forward Project’?
Conversion of private property as public property along with the introduction of collective farming is called leap forward project.
7. What was the Cultural Revolution?
In 1966, a movement took place in the China is called Cultural Revolution. It destroyed the thousands of Buddhist temples and killed thousands of believers.
9) Who organized the long march?
The Long march was organized by Mao Tse Tung.
10) Name the countries which formed the triple Alliance
11) Name the countries which formed the triple entente
12) What is mean by Nuremberg Laws?
These were rules of Hitler enacted in the year of 1934.
13) Who were ‘Goebels’?
Goebels were the special ministers of the Hitler appointed to spread racial hatred.