1. PROBLEMS OF INDIA AND REMEDIES
1) What are the Measures taken to spread literacy?
a) Sarvashiksha Abhiyana has been launched in 2001 to provide education.
b) In 1988 National Literacy mission has also been established to make people literate.
c) Literate India programme has been launched.
d) Right to Education 2009 has been guarantees.
e) Compulsory and free education for children aged between 6 to 14 years.
2) What are the plans to eradicate poverty in India.
a) BPL cards are issued to the poor families.
b) Five years plans introduced to eradicate poverty.
c) Jawahar Rojgar Yojana Introduced.
d) MGREGP Introduced.
3) What is meant by Smuggling? Write any two suggestions to control it.
Bringing commodities from foreign countries without paying any duties is called smuggling. Two suggestions to control it are
a) By encouraging import substitutions.
b) Social boycott of smuggling goods.
c) Awareness among the citizens that smuggling is an anti-national crime.
4) ‘Regionalism is against national development’. How?
Extreme regionalism, if it allowed to grow, it cause serious conflicts among the states like inter-state border disputes, river water disputes etc. This can act against the unity of the country.
5) What progress has been achieved in the field of literacy after independence?
At the time of independence the literacy rate in India was 12%. It increased to 66% in 2001, By the 2011 it has increased about 74.04%.
6) What are the causes for profiteering?
a) Unchecked price rise. b) Increase in profit margin of products.
c) Monopoly of business houses. d) Spread of multinational companies
e) Black Marketing.
7) How does regionalism help in the development of the country?
It helps the people to take initiative for the all-round progress of the local areas.
8) Name the offices created to control corruption.
The office of Lokpal and Lokayakta are created to control corruption.
9) Who were the first women to be appointed as the Governor of a state?
10) What percent of seats are reserved for women in local governments?
33.3% reserved for women in local Government.
11) Under which article the Right to Education is given as fundamental right.
It was given under the article of 21A
Points to Remember
· The success of democracy depends on the education of the people.
· Divide and Rule policy of the British Government has sown the seeds of modern communalism.
· Intolerance towards the people of other faith is called communalism.
· The Act that prevents smuggling is COFEPOSA.
· The central Education Department is now called as the Ministry of Human Resources Development
02. FOREIGN POLICY OF INDIA.
1. What are the objectives of Indian foreign Policy?
The Objectives of foreign policy of India are
a) National security.
b) National Economic progress.
c) Spreading Indian Culture and Values in abroad.
d) Increasing the number of friendly nations.
e) Achieving world peace.
f) Promoting peaceful co-existence.
2. What are the principles of panchasheela?
a) Mutual respect for national integrity and sovereignty.
b) Mutual non-aggression.
c) Mutual non-interference in each others internal affairs.
d) Mutual assistance and equality.
e) Peaceful Co-existence.
3. How is foreign policy helpful for national progress?
a) Foreign policy upholds international peace and co-existence.
b) It considers public values of mutual respects.
c) They help in Bi-lateral trade and commerce among the nations.
d) It helps in economic progress and development.
e) It provides peace and prosperity.
f) Political and social development possible along with economic development.
Thus foreign policy is helpful for national progress.
4. What are the fundamental factors of India’s foreign policy?
The fundamental factors of our foreign policy are
a) Panchasheela Principles.
b) Non-Alignment policy.
c) Against Colonialism.
d) Against racial discrimination
5. Why is India championing the cause of disarmament as very important for the present day world?
There is a fear among many nations that the third world war may take place because of arms race. There is every possibility that the nations may use nuclear weapons. So as a peace loving nation India Champions the cause of qualitative and quantitative disarmament. Right from the time of Nehru, as the Prime minister, India argued for disarmament to maintain peaceful Co-operation. India upholds the policy of world peace and mutual co-existence.
3. INDIA’S RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER COUNTRIES
1) What are the reasons for tension between India and Pakistan?
a) The tension and rivalry with India has not allowed Pakistan to maintain good relations.
b) Military dictatorships and political instability is one of the reasons.
c) Indo-pak wars in 1947-48, 1965, 1971 and in 1999
d) Kashmir problem and terrorist activities are the major issues which are to be solved.
e) Border problems.
2) Why relationship between India and China has been strained in these days?
a) Construction and Co-operative principles are not bringing good results between two countries.
b) China invaded India in 1962 and had occupied a large area in Arunachal Pradesh
c) Maoists terrorism in the form of Naxalism in India also casting a shadow on our mutual relationship.
d) Border problems.
e) Nucler threat
f) Foreign trade and Challenges.
3) Explain India’s Relationship with Russia.
India maintains good relationship with Russia.
a) Russia supported India in the Liberation of Goa in 1961.
b) Taskhant agreement was signed by India and Pakistan with Russia as mediator.
c) Twenty years treaty in 1971 with an objective of peace, friendship and Co-operation.
d) Russia assisted India to have steel plant at Bhilai and Bokaro.
e) Russia is supporting India to be a permanent member in the security council of U.N.O.
1) What was Bangladesh formerly known as?
The Bangladesh was earlier known as East Pakistan.
2) Which country helped Bangladesh to secure independence?
3) How many major wars fought between India and Pakistan?
4) Which was the first country to recognize communist chain in 1949?
5) What is meant by LTTE?
It was the military organization formed by the Tamils of Sri lanka.
6) Which country helped India to fight the 1962 invasion of China?
The United States of America.
7) What is the major irritant in cordial Indo-U.S. Relations?
The military Co-operation between United States and Pakistan is a major irritant in cordial Indo-US relations.
8) Which of the India’s state is claiming by the china as it’s?
4. WORLD PROBLEMS AND INDIA’S ROLE
1. Arms race will lead to destruction of the world. Explain.
The race for armaments leads to evil destruction like fear, insecurity and tension in the world. The increased production and stockpiling of weapons can push the world to the brink of another major war.
2. Which are the major initiatives and treaties to check the nuclear arms race?
a) Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT)
b) Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT)
c) The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)
d) The Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT)
3. What is meant by ‘Third world’?
Normally the most advanced countries are considered as the first world and the comparatively least advanced communist countries as the ‘Second World’. The under developed, economically backward poor countries of the world are often referred as the third world countries.
4. What is meant by the phrase ‘White-Man’s burden’?
After the Geographical exploration, the Europeans started building vast empires in Asia and Africa. The people of these areas were mainly brown, black or yellow. The whites of Europe considered these people of Asia and Africa as inferior and uncivilized. They considered it their duty to civilize these people. This is termed the white-man’s burden to civilize the world.
5. How were South Africa and Rhodesia forced to give up the policy of racism by India?
In order to force south Africa and Rhodesia forced to give up the policy of racism, the Government of India refused to recognize these nations and forced the united nations to impose sanction on them.
6. What are the causes of terrorism?
Terrorism is often fuelled by religious fundamentalism, Separatist ideology, leftist thoughts liberation motives and racialism.
5. THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATIONS
· The united Nation was established in 1945.
· The Headquarter of UN is located at New York.
· The Executive organ of the U.N. which functions like a world parliament is General Assembly.
· The Judges of the International Court of Justice appointed for a term of – Nine Years.
· The Court of International Justice is situated at – The Hague.
· The present secretary General of U.N. is Ban-Ki-moon.
· The WHO started in the year-1948.
· The SAARC was started in the year-1985
· The European union is the successor to European Economic Community.
· The European Union came into being by the treaty signed in 1992 by the European nations at – Mastricht.
· The symbolic head of the common wealth of Nations is the – British Crown.
· The WTO was established in – 1995.
· The Headquarters of the WTO is located in Geneva of Switzerland.
· The International Labour organization (ILO) has its head quarters at Geneva in Switzerland.
· The financial institution set up after the Second World War for economic revivals was – world Bank.
· The UNICEF Received the prize of Noble in 1965.
· The term United Nations was coined by Franklin D. Roosevelt.
· The Chief Administrative officer of the U.N.O. is – The secretary General.
· WHO has been successful in eradicating – Small pox from the world.
· The headquarters of the SAARC is at – Katmandu
· The Organisation for African unity was formed in 1963.
· The OAU is fighting against – Neo – Colonialism.
· The Agency of the U.N.O. also called as the world Bank is – IBRD.
· The Court of International Justices consist-15
· The common currency used by the European union countries is – Euro.