1. SOCIAL STRATIFICATIONS
2. What are the constitutional and legal measures undertaken to eradicate untouchability? Explain.
a) Section 17 of the constitution prohibits the practice of untouchability.
b) The untouchability crime Act was implemented in 1955.
c) The citizen rights protection act according to this, the practice of untouchability is a punishable offence.
d) The citizen’s right protection act was passed in 1976.
e) Universal suffrage and right to equality have been guaranteed to all the citizens.
f) Reservation is given in all the sectors for backward castes.
g) The regulation of 1989 insists state Government to eradicate untouchability.
3. ‘Practice of untouchability is a social evil’. How?
The Indian population is divided into thousands of castes and communities. Among these some are considered upper and other are lower. The lower among the lower castes are scheduled castes and they were subjected to the stigma of Hindu Society. Because of untouchability the lower caste have been denied religious, social and economic rights. This has resulted in their backwardness and poverty. Untouchability violates the principles of equality and humanism. Therefore it is a social evil.
4. What are your suggestions to stop the social evil of untouchability?
a) Educating the people of the country to build awareness about it.
b) Helping the people to shun the social evil practice.
c) Equality should be practiced not just in words but also in action.
d) Welfare and developmental programmes should include all state of society equally.
e) The work and thoughts of social Reformers should be continued.
Points to remembers
· The untouchability offence Act was enacted in – 1955.
· The Article of the constitution declares untouchability is a punishable offence is – 17.
· “Truly, the whole mankind is one” was declared by – Pampa.
· According to Gandhiji untouchability is a stigma on – Hindu Society.
· The protection of civil Rights Act was enacted in the year – 1976.
· Social stratification in India based on – castes
· The development of Social Inequality leads to – Social conflicts.
2. WORK AND ECONOMIC LIFE
1. What are the measures for removal of the unemployment?
The measures taken to remove unemployment are
a) Control of population.
b) Encouragement to cottage industries.
c) Agricultural and Industrial development.
d) Educational reforms.
e) Introduction of five years plans.
f) Encouragement to the Vocational education
g) Encouragement to the advanced science and technology in creation of job.
2. What are the differences between organized and unorganized workers.
Those who work in specific field
Those who do not work in specific field.
Governed by legal rules and regulations
Not governed by any rules and regulation
Every employees work or subject to specific terms and conditions
Workers are not subjected to any terms and conditions
Specific hours for work
No specific hours for work
Job security is given
No job security given
Get more facilities
Do not get more facilities
3. Explain the nature of the discrimination at work.
Discrimination at work can be seen on gender, age and ability.
a) Gender : Men are offered better jobs and pays. Women get lesser responsibilities and lesser pay though they do the same kind of work like men.
b) Age : There is inequality employment of wages.
c) Ability : People who have training are specialized and given higher posts, where as people who have no training but still do the same work as the trained personnel.
These kind of discrimination is found in the agriculture and industrial sector.
3. COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR AND PROTESTS
1) What is mob? Give example.
Assemble of people around a common interest without any expectation or planning is called mob.
Ex : A gathering of people to watch a street acrobatic show.
2) Describe the nature /features of a mob.
Mob is a temporary assembly of people around a common interest without any expectation of planning.
a) People assemble at a specific place.
b) Members of a mob are influenced very early by mutual feelings, opinions and acts.
c) There is a possibility of display of suppressed feelings.
d) Some time it leads violent form.
3) Describe the nature of riots.
Riots are examples of collective behavior. Those who involved in riots go on destroying everything in their way. Creation of chaos is the intention of rioters. People involved in a riot do not have any particular aim or cause for the destruction they cause. Riots generally take place in cities and towns.
4) Explain environment.
Environment comprises the earth, air, water and the biosphere around us. All forces that influence and situation that affect the life of an organism can be called environment. Environment is a strong force which influence and control the life of an organism.
5) What was the purposes of the Appiko Movement? Where was it organized?
The purpose of the Appiko Movement was to stop smuggling of trees from the Kalase forest and develop awareness among the common people about the importance of growing trees and importance of protecting the environment.
It was organized by the villagers of salkani in Uttar Kannada district.
6) Who led the Narmada movement? What was the objective of this movement?
Narmada Bachao movement was led by the medha patkar and Baba Amte. This movement aimed at stopping the construction of Sardar Sarovar dam across the river Narmada in Gujarat.
7) Why did the silent valley movement take place?
The environment and many animal species came under threat when a dam was planned to be constructed in the silent valley in Palghat district of Kerala. In order to stop construction, the Kerala Sahitya Parishad and wildlife enthusiasts agitated against it.
4. SOCIAL PROBLEMS
1. What is child labour?
The labour undertaken by minor children aged below 14 years in order to earn money is called child labour.
2. What is dowry?
Any kind of property, Jewellery or gift given to the bridegroom at the time of marriage, either before or after the marriage, by the parents of the bride is called dowry.
3. What is meant by female infanticide?
The inhuman practice of killing the female baby after its born is called female infanticide.
4. What is meant by female foeticide?
Female foeticide is the act of killing a foetues because of it is female.
5. What is the gender ratio as per the 2011 census?
As per the 2011 Census, there are 940 women for every 1000 men in India.
6. When was child labour and prohibition Act enacted?
It was enacted in the year 1986.
7. When was Dowry prohibition Act enacted?
It was enacted in the year 1961.
8. When was the Dowry prohibition Act amended?
It was amended in the year 1986.
9. When was National policy for the welfare of child labours brought?
It was brought in – 1987.
10. What is the major cause of female foeticide in India?
The desire for a male child is leading to female feticide in India.