LABOUR AND EMPLOYMENT
I. Fill in the blanks:
1. The famous book of Adam Smith is -----
2. Abolition of bonded labour act was passed In the year _
3. When the marginal productivity of a labour is zero, it is known as ---
4. Division of labour increases -----
5. Abolition of child labour act was passed in the year ----
Ans: (1) The Wealth of Nations; (2)1976; (3) Disguised unemployment; (4) efficiency of labour (5) 1986.
II. Answer the following :
1. What is meant division of labour?
Ans: By division of labour we mean the allocation of different parts of the production process to different workers or to different groups of workers.
2. What is meant by child labour?
Ans: The children working below the age of 14 years to work is called child labour.
2. Define unemployment?
Ans: An unemployed is one who is willing to work at the prevailing market rate, but still does not get the work. In other words it is a situation where able people who are capable of working both physically and mentally at the existing wage rate do not get job opportunities.
4. Explain the advantages of division of labour?
Ans: The important advantages of the division of labour are
(i) Efficiency of labour - Labour increases the efficiency of labour
(ii) Quality of production - the increase in the efficiency of labour leads to an increase in the quantity of output as well as to improve the quality of the goods produced and services.
(iii) Profit - The increase in quantity and quality of output brings greater profit.
(iv) Average cost - Since division of labour increases the total output the average cost of producing a commodity falls, then consumers get goods at cheap rate.
(v) Research and development - it helps in research and innovation which leads to produce variety of new products.
5. List the disadvantages division of labour?
Ans: The important disadvantages of the division of labour are-
(i) Monotony of work: Since a worker has to do the same job time and again, therefore, after sometime, the worker feels bored.
(ii) Lack of responsibility: If the quality of the product is not up to the expected level, none can be held responsible.
(iii) Increased dependence: When the production is divided up in to a number of process and each part is performed by different workers, it may lead to dependence among workers.
(iv) Unemployment: When a specialized worker is removed from the job, he/she has to look for a job which is of the same type.
(v) Class conflict: Division of labour facilitates large scale production which helps the producers to earn huge profits. The producers thus become rich by paying fewer wage to the workers. This divides the society into rich and poor.
6. State the meaning of productive and unproductive labour?
Ans: Productive Labour: Productive Labour is that which creates some utility or which has undergone utility for earning an income. The anti social activities are not considered productive labour because they try to rob the wealth of others.
Reproductive labour: Reproductive labour is the works at domestic place, at house. It can also be called as domestic labour. It is unpaid work, performed by women in home.
7. List the types of unemployment?
Ans: Types of Unemployment: Unemployment can be divided into
(i) Rural unemployment. It can exist in two ways- a) disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment.
(ii) Urban unemployment. It can exist in two ways –
1) Industrial unemployment and educated unemployment.
2) Other types of unemployment are: (a) frictional unemployment, (b) casual unemployment, (c) structural unemployment, (d) technical unemployment, (e) cyclical unemployment, (f) chronicle unemployment.
8. Identify the differences between disguised un-employment and seasonal unemployment?
Ans: Disguised unemployment is a situation with surplus manpower than actual requirement. The marginal productivity of some workers is zero. So even removal of these surplus employees will not affect the volume of total production. It is also called under employment. For example- suppose four persons are working in a family farm which is properly organized and if two more workers are employed on the same farm and if there is no change in output, we may say that these two workers are disguisedly unemployed.
Seasonal unemployment: Some occupations of agriculture and industries are seasonal in nature. They offer employment for only a certain period of time in a year. People engaged in such a type of work or activities may remain unemployed during the off season.