LAND USE AND AGRICULTURE IN INDIA-10th Standard Social Science Notes

CHAPTER 7

Geography

LAND USE AND AGRICULTURE IN INDIA

KEY POINTS:

i. Paddy - India – II largest – Kharif Crop 250 C, 100-200cm, fertile alluvial soil and clayey soil, flat land.

ii. Wheat - Largest Producer - Uttar Pradesh, Rabi Crop  100 C - 150C, 50 – 70cm, black soil and Sandy Mixed clayey soil

iii. Sugarcane - 210C - 260C, 100-150cm, Fertile loamy soil mixed with black soil is

iv. Tea - 21° C and rainfall of 100-200 cms are fertile soil with rich organic matter and hill slopes with sand-mixed black soil are required. Tea grows well at an altitude of 1200 to 2400metres.

v. Cotton - Largest producer – Maharashtra. Kharif Crop tropical and sub-tropical crops 200C-250C, 75-100cm, Black soil and loamy soil

vi Tobacco: 21° to 27° C. 50 cms Rainfall , well in sandy soil, tropical crop

I Choose the Correct answer from the following alternatives:

1. The state that stands first in the Production of wheat in India is

a) Madhya Pradesh b) Maharastra

c) Uttara Pradesh d) Jharkand

2. The `Wheat granary' of India is

a) Andhra Pradesh b) Punjab

c) Haryana d) Karnataka

3. is the second largest producer of paddy in the world.

a) China b) Japan

c) India d) Pakisthan

4. Sedentary farming is agriculture.

a) Seasonal b) Shifting c) Primitive d) Settled

II. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:

1. Utilising the land for a variety of purposes is known as Land use

2. Two-three crops growing in one agricultural at the same time on land is called intensive farming

3. Farmers growing crops only to sustain themselves is called subsistence farming.

4. The commercial crop is sugarcane

5. The state is the largest producer of paddy in India is West Bengal

6. India is in the second place in the production of Paddy

7. India occupies second place in the production of sugarcane

8. India stands third in the production of Tobacco

9. Cotton is a kharif crop

10. Tea is a perennial crop

11. Tobacco is a tropical town is the marketing centre for tobacco

12. India is famous for Tea Export.

II Answer the following after discussing them in groups:

1. What is meant by „Land-use‟ ?

Land is the most important natural resource. Making use of land for various purposes like cultivation, forestry, grassland, fallow land, purposes other than agriculture etc., is called „Land use‟.

2. What are the factors that influence land use ?

Depending on the necessity and characteristics, land is utilized for different purposes. Many natural, economic and social factors influence the manner in which land is used. The natural factors are land forms, climate are influenced on characteristics of soil.

Land holdings, population, demand for agricultural products, profession, attitude of people, social condition, marketing facilities are influenced on land use. Other factors like technology, irrigation facility, human capability, land ownership also have an effect on it.

3. What is „Agriculture‟ ?

Agriculture is one of the ancient occupation of human beings, has engaged in it since the beginning of civilization. Agriculture has been described as „the art of cultivating the land‟. Cultivating or tilling the land and growing crops. Agriculture also includes fisheries, cattle-rearing and forestry.

4. What are the types of Agriculture ?

1. Intensive farming

2. Subsistence farming

3. Commercial farming

4. Mixed farming

5. Horticultural farming

5. What is „kharif crop‟ ?

The crops grown during the south-west monsoon season are called kharif crops.

6. What is meant by „rabi crop‟ ?

The seeds are sown in October - November and the crops are harvested during February and March are called „rabi crop‟.

7. What are the factors essential for growing cotton?

India ranks first in area under cotton cultivation, and second in production of cotton. Cotton is the tropical and sub-tropical crops. It grows well in areas where temperature is 20° to 25° C with a rainfall of 75 to 150 cms. Black soil and loamy soil support the growth of cotton.

8. Prepare a list of the flowers grown around you.

India produces flowers like jasmine, champa,marigold, chrysanthemum, kanakambara, rose and lily are very important.

There is a lot of demand for cut flowers like rose, orchids, gladiolus, lily, carnation, anthurium etc., and their production has gained significant progress.

9. What is Terminal Market ?

An ambitious project has been taken up to link the areas in which horticultural crops are grown with the market. This market has direct contact with the surrounding producing areas. This is called „Terminal Market‟.

10. What is fallow land ?

It is the land left uncultivated. With the increase in population, there is great demand for agricultural products, and as such, more and more land is being used for cultivation. Therefore, even fallow land is being utilized for agriculture with the help of technology.

11. Mention the types of land use.

1. Net sown area

2. Forest area

3. Use of land for purposes other than cultivation

4. Fallow land

5. grassland

6. uncultivated land.

12. Explain the importance of Agriculture.

  • Importance of Agriculture:
  • Agriculture is the main occupation of Indians.
  • Farming supplies the food grains of the huge population of the country.
  • It is a life-subsistence occupation and provides more employment opportunities than all other sectors of economy.
  • There are many industries in India which depend on the raw materials provided by agriculture.
  • agriculture nurtures many industries. eg: chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, industries manufacturing farming equipment etc
  • Agriculture supports even many tertiary occupations like transport, trade, banking etc.

13. What are the difference between Sedentory farming & shifting cultivation ?

Sedentory Farming

Shifting Cultivation

It is settled agriculture. The agriculture practices and seads used are traditional ones, the produce is mainly used domestic  consumption and in small holdings. Sometimes people do not settle down in any particular area, but cut down  forests and engage in farming.  After one or two years‟, when the  fertility of the soil reduces, they move on to other areas and start cultivation there. This is called shifting cultivation. It has been banned in the modern days.

14. What is commercial farming?

Mixed farming is the raising of crops and cattle-rearing, poultry, beekeeping, pig- rearing, silk farming, aquaculture etc. This is called Mixed Farming.

15. What is cropping pattern?

The cropping pattern of a region refers to the proportion of an area under different crops at a given point of time. The ratio of these crops is known as Cropping Pattern.

16. Which are the factors influencing cropping pattern?

1. Natural factors: Among the Physical factors, land forms climate and rainfall are important, and play a significant role in determining the cropping pattern of that region.

2. Economic factors: Commercial crops are growing in vast holdings. Earning a huge profit is the main purpose of growing such crops.

3. Social factors: Traditions, superstitions, illiteracy etc. play an important role in determining the cropping pattern.

4. Farmers‟ attitude: This plays a very important role in the cropping pattern of an area. eg: Earlier, farmers in North Karnataka used to grow mainly jowar and wheat. However, now they are growing sunflower, groundnut, toor dal and onion which fetch a greater profit.

17. Which are the three cropping season of India?

India has three cropping seasons, they are

1) Khariff or early monsoon crop.

2) Rabior post monsoon crop

3) Jade or summer crop.

18. What jade farming give examples?

In many areas of the country, during the period between kharif and rabi crops, crops and cultivated. This is called „Jade farming‟. Pulses like black gram, green gram, oil seeds and vegetables are grown in this season.

19. What is golden Revolution?

India ranks first in the world in the production of mango, banana, chikoo and citric fruits. Due to this, the government is giving more importance to horticulture and this field is witnessing immense progress. This progress of the horticultural field is known as the „Golden Revolution‟.

20. Make a list of crops & largest producer.

   Crop  -->  Largest producer

1. Paddy → West Bengal

2. Wheat → Uttar Pradesh

3. Sugarcane → Uttar pradesh

4. Tobacco → Uttar Pradesh

5. Cotton → Maharashtra

6. Tea → Assam

21. What is mixed farming?

Mixed farming is the raising of crops and rearing of cattle, poultry, bee keeping, sericulture etc., on the same land

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