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MINERAL AND POWER RESOURCES-10th Standard Social Science Notes

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CHAPTER 8

Geography

MINERAL AND POWER RESOURCES

I Fill in the blanks with suitable words:

1. In India, Jharkhand and Orissa states having highest iron ore deposit.

2. Bauxite is produced from Alluminium metal.

3. Mica is also called Kage Bangara in Kannada.

4. Hatti is the largest producer of gold in India.

5. Ferro –allied ore in India is Manganese.

6. Manganese is used in the manufacture of steel.

7. India ranks 6th in the world Iron ore deposit.

8. India ranks 5th in the world bauxite deposit

9. Petroleum : Liquid Gold:: Coal : Black Diamond

10. The first petroleum oil well was drilled in Ankaleshwar

11. Petroleum was first discovered at Digboi of Assam

II Answer the following after discussing them in groups:

1. What are the important mineral resources available in India?

Iron ore, Manganese, Bauxite , mica , Gold , etc.

2. Which are the major states producing manganese in India?

The manganese ore extracted in India is of the best quality. Pyrolosite and Silomelane are important manganese ore.

Orissa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra are the important manganese- producing states. In addition, Bihar, Chattisgarh, Rajasthan, Punjab and Goa also produce manganese ore.

3. Mention the types of iron ore produced in India.

Types of iron ore: Based on the metal and impurities content, iron ore is classified into four types:

1. Magnatite

2. Heamatite

3. Limonite

4. Sederite

4. Which are the important energy resources of India? Describe them.

Coal and Petroleum

In India, the most important power resource is coal. India ranks third in the world in the production of coal.

It is said that millions of years ago, the earth was covered with thick dense forests,

and these forests gradually burried in the layers of the earth and converted into coal due to heat and pressure.

Coal is not only an energy source, but also used in the manufacture of insect repellants, explosives, artificial fibre, artificial rubber, plastic, chemical fertilizer etc. Coal being a important mineral product with multiple uses, it is called “Black Diamond”.

Petroleum: It is believed by scientists that petroleum is the product of fossils of ancient living beings. Petroleum pumped out of the earth is a mixture of various materials and is called Crude Oil. This is purified in refineries to produce gasoline, petrol, diesel, kerosene etc. Petrol is not only an energy source but also an important raw material. A number of industries have flourished using this as a raw material. Petroleum is a very important energy resource in agriculture, industry and transportation. This is a very precious in both during peace and war. Hence it is called „Liquid Gold‟.

5. What is non-conventional energy resources? Explain their importance.

Renewable energy sources are solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, Geo thermal energy, bio-gas etc. are called non-conventional energy sources.

1. Solar Energy: Use of the heat emanating from the sun‟s rays is called „Solar Energy‟.

  • This is renewable source of energy, and the solar power is directly converted into heat energy.
  • Solar energy is already being used in a variety of ways like solar water heater, cooker, solar thermal electric bulb, railway signal, to water and in communication media.
  • India‟s first solar electricity production center is being proposed to be set up at Baramar in Rajasthan.
  • Recently, a solar electric station was proposed to be set up in Chikkaballapur district in Karnataka.

Wind Power: In India, wind power is being produced on a commercial purpose and in the future, many parts of the country would be using wind power as the main source of electricity. India is the fifth country in the world to producing wind power. Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan and Gujarat are establishing wind power stations.

6. Give suggestions to scarcity the power scarcity or What are the steps to prevent the deficit in the energy resources?

1. Use of non-conventional resources

2. Giving importance to hydro- electric power generation

3. Use of alternate local energy resources

4. Encouraging the use of non-conventional energy resources

5. Educating the people regarding the reduced use of energy resources

6. Producing energy from solid waste.

7. What is the need for non conventional energy?

In India, of the energy resources being used, the exhaustible energy resources are the main ones. It has become inevitable to use non-conventional energy sources to conserve the conventional energy sources. Exploration and use of non exhaustible energy uses has gained a lot of importance in the five-year plans.

8. What is Atomic Power ? Give examples and Explain.

India plenty of atomic minerals. Atomic power is generated usingn these atomic minerals. Atomic power decides the status and might of a nation. Atomic power was used only for a country‟s defence in the earlier days. But today, it is being widely used for power generation. The important atomic minerals found in India are Uranium, Thorium, Berylium, Lithium etc.

a. Uranium: It is distributed in Singhbhum, Gaya and Hazaribagh districts of

Jharkhand, in the loamy soil of Saharanapur of Uttar Pradesh, in the sandy coasts of

Kerala containing monazite.

b. Thorium: This can be found in Kerala, Bihar, Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan.

c. Berylium: Berylium oxide is used as a catalyst or „moderator‟ in reactors

producing nuclear energy. India has sufficient deposits of berylium.

d. Lithium: This light metal is obtained from lepidolite and fudomine ores. It is found abundantly in Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh.

9. Explain the coal deposits in India.

  • In India, coal deposits are widely distributed in Damodar river valley.
  • Jharkhand and Chattisgarh are the states producing largest amount coal.
  • Jharia, Giridhi, Bokaro and Karanpur are the main fidds. Besides, Godavari, Mahanadi and Vardha river valleys have coal deposits.
  • The states producing coal are Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Orissa, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
  • In India, there is a great demand for coal and hence it is importing Superior quality coal

10. Which are the petroleum sources in India ?

  • In India, petroleum was first discovered at Digboi of Assam.
  • Till independence, Digboi was the only region of petroleum products.
  • Today, Lakhimpur, Hugrijin, Moran, Naharakathia and other oil wells of Aslam producing petroleum production.
  • Gujarat is the another field producing crude oil.
  • The first well was drilled in Ankaleshwar.
  • In the year 1974, oil crude was identified about 110 kms away from Bombay in the off share field called Bombay High and the production was started in 1976.
  • This is the biggest oil deposit of India. Recently, oil deposits have been discovered in Kaveri, Krishna, Godavari and Mahanadi river basins.
  • Today, there are about 19 refineries producing petroleum.
  • The petroleum production is not sufficient in India, crude oil is beingimported from Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Russia.

11. What are the qualities & uses of Mica?

Mica has some qualities; the important among them are Insulation and elasity.

It is used in the manufacture of telephones, telegraph, wireless service, glass, colour varnish, artificial rubber, dynamos and chemical industries.

Mica is also called „kage bangara‟ in Kannada.

12. Which are the Iron ore deposits in India ?

In India, Jharkhand, Orissa and Karnataka states have maximum iron ore deposits. Singhbaum of Jharkhand, Khendjohar, Mayurbhanj and Sundargarh districts have huge deposits of iron ore. Bastar, Durg and Raipur districts of Chattisgarh, Goa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu also have iron ore deposits. In Karnataka, Kemmangundi, Hospet, Sandur and Kudremukh have large deposits of iron ore.

13. Which are the types of Manganese ?

The main types of manganese ore are Pyrolusite, Psilomelane, Magnatite, Branite and Holyandite.

14. What is a Mineral ?

Minerals are the most important natural resources. „A compound of naturally available substance with specific chemical composition is called a mineral‟.

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