I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:
1. Renaissance means ______________.
2. ______________ is called the father of Renaissance.
3. Followers of Martin Luther are .
4. The leader of the. ______________ Reformation movement is ______________
5. Founder of the spinning jenny machine is………
Ans:- (1) rebirth/ reawake (2) Petrareh/ Italy; (3) Protestants: (4) Religious, Martin Luther, (5) Hargreaves.
II. Answer the following questions by discussing with your group:
1. What were the consequences of religious reformation?
Ans:- The consequences of religious reformation are as follows:
1. Christianity was divided into three sects - Catholic Church, Orthodox Church and Protestant church.
2. Many European kings got liberated from the hold of the Church and the pope.
3. Religious reformation led to rise of nationalism.
4. The confiscated wealth of the Church was utilized for the economic development.
5. Patriotic feelings became strong and the kings of Europe developed religious tolerance.
6. Due to this movement, the literacy field saw progress. Local languages influenced the European minds.
7. The Catholic Church itself underwent reformation and this came to be known as Counter Reformation.
2. What were the reasons for geographical explorations?
Ans: Some of the reasons for geographical explorations are as follows:
1. When the Turks conquered the city of Constantinople in 1453 A.D., the Europeans faced the inevitability of finding a new sea route to India.
2. Spain and Portugal were ambitious of competing with Arabs in sea trade.
3. Discovery of new countries opened the possibility spreading Christianity.
4. European curiosity was roused by the adventurous nature of sea voyages towards eastern countries.
5. Mariner's compass and astrolabe equipment were helpful to sailors. Charts and maps were available to sailors.
6. The Europeans believed that China was a fertile place to make profit.
3. Which are the water-colour paintings of Leonardo da Vinci?
Ans: Leonardo da Vinci's paintings are Last Super and Mona Lisa.
4. Explain the development of literature in the period of Renaissance with an Example.
Ans: Italy was the motherland of great writers. The theme of the literature was worldly matter rather than religion. Instead of Latin, many of the regional European languages came to be used in daily life. Petrareh is known as the 'Father of renaissance'. He collected about 200 Latin and Greek Manuscripts. A collection of 100 stories called Decameron written in Italian by Boccaccio, the famous work Divine Comedy by Dante, Canterbury Tales by Chaucer of England, Don Quixote by Cervantes of Spain, Utopia written by Thomas More of England are some of the notable works. Shakespeare was an excellent poet and dramatist. St. Paul School, established in London, was dedicated to the acquisition of this new knowledge.
5. Describe the effects of Industrial Revolution.
Ans: Some of the effects of Industrial Revolution are as follows:
1. Due to the innumerable changes in industries, demand for machines grew.
2. Many changes took place in the economic and social fields too.
3. New factories were established.
4. The cost of production came down and essential products were available at a low price.
5. Cottage industries could not compete with the giant factories and, thus, they collapsed.
6. The rich became richer and richer and the poor remained poor.
7. People had to migrate from villages to towns.
8. A capitalist class emerged in society.
9. Hostilities developed between the owners and the workers, and class conflict began.