L Fill in the blanks with suitable words:
1. The Law which governs the States is ______________
2. The meeting of new Constituent Assembly was held on ______________
3. __________ was the Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.
4. Our Constitution provides for a ______________Government system.
5. The State where the people enjoy sovereign power is called ______________
6. Our Constitution provides for ______________citizenship for its citizens.
7. The Right for Constitutional Remedies has been incorporated in Article ______________
8. The Directive Principles of State Policy are borrowed from the _____ Constitution.
Ans: (1) Constitution, (2) 11th December, 1946 (3) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, (4) democratic, (5) Sovereign Republic, (6) single, (7) 32, (8) Irish
II. Answer the following questions:
1. Who was the President of the New Constituent Assembly?
Ans: The President of the New Constituent Assembly was Dr. Rajendra Prasad.
2. When did the Constitution come into practice?
Ans: The Constitution came into practice from 26th January 1950.
3. What does the Preamble to the Constitution contain?
Ans: The Preamble to the Constitution contains the fundamental policies and ideals of the constitution. It is the sum of the structure, values, principles and goals of the constitution. It is based on the aspirations and ideals of the people of India.
4. What do you mean by 'Secularism'?
Ans: In India, the citizens have the liberty to practise any religion they desire. No religion has been given the status of a National religion. This is known as Secularism.
5. Explain the salient features of our Constitution.
Ans: Some of the salient features of our Constitution are as follows: Our Constitution
(a) is in written form. It is a lengthy Constitution with 24 chapters, 12 schedules and 450 Articles.
(b) is neither too flexible nor too rigid.
(c) provides for a Parliamentary form of Government. The sovereign power is vested in the elected Parliament.
(d) has declared India a republic. Therefore, 111) one can come to power through hereditary principle.
(c) provides for a Federal System of Government because our country consists of different languages, castes, races and geographical regions.
(f) has given Fundamental Rights to the people. No law of any government Central or State, or any organization can deny these rights. There are about six fundamental Rights.
(g) has defined fundamental duties. Fundamental duties have been delineated in 'A' the part of the 4th Chapter under clause 51 'A' of our Constitution,
(i) Directive Principles of State Policy have been incorporated in the 4th schedule of our Constitution. They are the basis for the establishment of social and economic equality.
(j) Our Judiciary is independent and centralized. The courts have the authority to give bold judgement in order to protect the rights of people.
(k) makes for single citizenship in order to curb narrow-minded provincialism, and promote nationalism.
(l) provides for adult franchise. All citizens above 18 years of age may exercise their right to vote.
(m) The Legislature that is -the Parliament consists of two Houses - the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. So our Parliament is called Bicameral.
(n) There is multi party system in India. The party which wins the majority of votes in the election becomes the Ruling party whereas the rest will be Opposition parties.
6. Which are the Fundamental Rights incorporated in our Constitution?
Ans:- The Fundamental Rights are listed in the 3rd part of the Constitution. There are six fundamental rights namely (1) Right to Liberty, (2) Right to Equality, (3) Right against Exploitation, (4) Right to Religion, (5) Right to Education and culture and (0) Right to Constitutional remedy.
7. Make a List the Fundamental Duties.
Ans: There are eleven fundamental duties. They are as follows:
(1) To respect the Constitution, National t1ag and National Anthem.
(2) To follow the noble ideals that inspired our National Struggle for freedom.
(3) To protect the integrity of India.
(4) To defend the motherland when called upon to do so
(5) To promote the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India.
(6) To preserve our rich heritage.
(7) To protect and improve the natural environment
(8) To develop the scientific temper and the spirit of enquiry.
(9) To safeguard public property and leave the violence.
(10) To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activities.
(11) The father or the guardians should provide an opportunity for education to their children from the age of 6 to 18 years.
8. Which are the Directive Principles of State Policy?
Ans; The Directive Principles of State Policy are as follows:
(1) To provide adequate means of livelihood to all citizens.
(2) To prevent the community wealth and resources from becoming the private property of a few people.
(3) To provide equal pay for equal work to both men and women, and to protect labour welfare.
(4) To provide public assistance to those who are old, sick. weak or helpless.
(5) To implement a Uniform Civil Code throughout the country.
(6) To provide opportunities for healthy development and preschool education of all children below 6 years.
(7) To protect histoncal monuments and main tall places of historical interest.
(8) To separate the Executive and the Judiciary.
(9) To protect international peace and respect international law.
(10) To establish Gram Panchayats.
(11) To encourage rural and cottage industries.
(12) To organize and develop agriculture and animal husbandry on modem lines.
(13) To ensure prohibition of liquor.
(14) To ensure development of farming based on scientific methods.