PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA-10th Standard Social Science Notes




Key Points

  • 3 parallel ranges Greater Himalayas, Lesser Himalayas, Outer Himalayas.
  • Highest peaks Mt. Everest, K2, Kanchanajunga.
  • Hill stations Raniket, Darjeeling Simla.
  • Valleys Kashmir valley, Kangra Valley, Kulu Valley, Lahul Valley.
  • Mt. Passes Shipikila (Gangtok in Tibet & Simla in Himachalpradesh) Jelepla (Llasa in Tibet & Kalimpang in West Bengal).
  • Mt. Everest 8,848 mt..
  • Mt. K2 – 8,611 mt.
  • Himalayan range 2500 km (Palmir Knot to Nagaland).
  • Mt. Ranges Pir Panjal, Dhauladhar, Mahabarath and Mussoorie.
  • The heart of India North Indian Plains.
  • The highest peak in South India Annaimudi in Annamalai range.
  • Salt water lakes or Lagoons Chilka lake (Orrisa) & Pulicat (Tamilnadu).
  • Two divisions of Eastern coast Utkal coast & Koramandal coast.
  • Divisions of Western coast Malbar coast, Karnataka, Konkan, Gujarat & Kachch& Kathiawad coast.
  • Islands – West - Arabian Sea – Lakshadweep islands (43 islands).East - Bay of Bengal–Andaman and Nicobar (204 islands).
  • Highest peak – Mount K2 (Mt. Godwin Austin) in Karakorum range.
  • Southern most point – Indira Point in Andaman Islands.

1. 6100Km - Coastal length of India

2. 1500Km - The Length of west Coast

3. 247 - Total islands of India

4. 204 - Islands in Bay of Bengal

5. 43 - Islands in the Arabian sea

6. 2665mts - Height of Anaimudi

7. 8848 mts - Height of Mount Everest

8. 8611 mts - Height of Godwin Austin

9. 2500km - The length of Himalayas

I Choose the Correct Answer from the following alternatives

1. The Highest peak in India is

a)Godwin Austin(K2) b)Mount Everest c)Gowrishankara d)Chandragiri

2. The largest of all the physical division of India is

a)The peninsular pleatu b)The Northern Plains c)Himalayas d)Islands

3. The Highest peak in South India is

a)Rajmudi b)Anaimudi c)Mullayyanagiri d)Brahmagiri

4. There are islands in India

a)247 b)267 c)204 d)268

5. Lakshadweep Islands are in the

a) Bay of Bengal b) Arabian Sea c) Red sea d) Caspian sea.

6. Pulicat Lake is in

a) Tamil Nadu b) West Bengal c) Bihar d) Orissa

7. The Chilka Lake is in

a) Tamil Nadu b) West Bengal c) Bihar d) Orissa

8. The narrow strip of plains or valley in the ranges are called

a) Valleys b) Hill stations c) Dunes d) Straits

9. The Highest Peak in World is

a) Mount Everest b) Nangaparbha c) Nanda Devi d) Mount Godwin Austin

II Fill in the blanks with suitable words:

1. India Land form four major divisions.

2. Greater Himalaya is also called Himadri

3. The highest mountain peak in the world is Mo unt Ever est‟ (8848 meters)

4. The North Indian plain is made up of allevial soils

5. The Western Ghats in Karnataka are also called „Sahy adri‟.

6. The Narrow plain along the coast is called the coastal plain

7. Western ghats and Eastern ghats meet at Nilgiri Hills

III. Match the following

1. Ranikhet - a)Mountain pass b

2. Nanda devi - b)Hill station c

3. Pirpanjal - c)Mountain d

4. Kulu - d)Mountain Range e

5. Zojila - e)Valley a

IV. Answer the following after discussing them in groups:

1. What is the other name for the foothills of the Himalayas?

Siwalik Range.

2. Which is the recently-formed landmass in India?

Siwalik Range

3. What are the advantages of Himalayas ?

  • The Himalayan mountains have influenced the life of Indians to a great extent.
  • They provide protection to India, by obstructing the cold winds from the sibenian regions.
  • They are the birth-place of many rivers.
  • They facilitate hydro-electric power generation.
  • They are the home to many types of plants and animals.
  • They are a great treasure-house of minerals, and are also significant for tourism and religious centers.

4. Explain the extend of peninsular pleatu.

The Peninsular Plateau stretches from the south of the Sutlej –Ganga plains upto the Indian Ocean in the South.

5. Write about the Shivalik range.

  • These hills are the most recent formations and are located in the southern part.
  • They have lesser height. They are also called „the Foothills‟ of the Himalayas.
  • These hills have narrow strips of plains or valleys which are called “Dunes”.
  • For example. Dehradune, Kota, Patli and chaukhamba Udhampur and Kotli.
  • These are about 600-1500 meters above the sea level.

6. The Northern plains are called deposited plains. Why?

The rivers which rises in the Himalays are brought Alluvial Soil and deposited in the Northern plains.

7. Which are the three Parallel ranges of the northern mountains?

The three parallel ranges of the northern mountain are

  • Himadri or Greater Himalayas
  • Himachal or Lesser Himalayas
  • Siwaliks or Outer Himalayas

8. Where do the western and eastern Ghats meet?

The western and Eastern Ghats meet in the Nilgiris

9. What are Dunes ? Give Example .

The narrow strips of plains or valleys which are found in foot hills of Himalayas are called Dunes. Ex: Dehradune , Kota patil , and Chaukhamba.

10. Mention the mountain ranges?

Pirpanjal, Mahabharath, Nagtibba , Mussorie.

11. Which are the Hills stations found in the Himachal?

Shimla, Mussorie, Nainital Ranikhet Chakrata and Durjeeling are the famous hill station of Himachal.

12. Mountain Passes:

Kashmirs Burzil, Zojila, Baralacha of Himachale Pradesh.

13. Which are the highest peaks in the Eastern Ghats?

Armaconda and Mahendragir.

14. The Penisular plateau has great importance How?

  • it has rich deposits of minerals.
  • As the rivers have many form waterfalls, the best suited for the production of hydro-electricity.

15. Which are the island groups of India?

  • The Andaman and Nicobar Islands in Bay of Bengal and
  • Lakshadweep Island in Arabian Sea are the Island groups of India.

16. The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.

Western Ghats

Eastern Ghats

i. They are higher and continuous

ii. They are closer to the sea

iii. Aniaimudi Is the highest Peak

They are not very high and not continuous

They are separated by river valleys

Armaconda &Mahendragiri are the highest peak

17. The western coast and eastern coast.

western coast

eastern coast.

i. It lies between the western ghats and the Arabian sea and extends from gulf of Kachch to cape comorin.

ii. It is divided into Malabar, Karnataka Konkan , Gujrat Coasts and Kutch and Kathiwad Peninsulas

iii It is 1500Km Mumbai ,Mangalore, Cochin ,Kandla Karwar are the ports

It lies between the Eastern Ghats and bay of Bengal and extends from Kanyakumari to Gangetic delta.

It is divided into coromandel Coast in south and Utkal coast in the north.

It is wide & flat

It comprise the deltas of Mahanadi , Godwari ,Krishna, Cauvery Rivers.

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