POVERTY AND HUNGER
I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:
1. According to the National Sample Survey Organization
(NSSO), in 2004-05, there were ________ poor people in India.
2. The person who first brought the poverty line concept into practice to identify poor people was ________
3. The Indian government has established ________ to buy and store food grains.
4. The Health insurance that is provided to poor people is called __________
5. The project that has been implemented for the purpose of providing old age pension is ____________
6. The government fixes the minimum price for the food grains before sowing season. This is called _______
Ans: (1) 21.8% 2) Dadabhai Naoroji (3) Food Corporation of
India (4) Yashaswini Yojana (5) Sandhya Suraksha Yojana (6) Minimum support price.
ll. Answer the following in a sentence each:
1. Give the meaning of 'Poverty'.
Ans: The condition in which people are deprived of their fundamental needs like food, clothing, shelter, education and health is called poverty.
2. What are the basic requirements of human beings?
Ans: The basic requirements of human beings especially of the rural people are food, shelter, education, drinking water, hygiene, etc.
3. What is 'poverty line'?
Ans: Poverty line is the yardstick used to measure poverty by
differentiating between poor and the non-poor.
4. What is the indicator framed to measure amount of
Ans: 'World Hunger Index' is the indicator framed to measure
amount of hunger.
5. What is 'food security'?
Ans: Food security refers to that system which ensures the provision of food at all times to everyone in the country.
6. What is meant by buffer stock?
Ans: The government buys the excessive food grains from the farmers at the Lime of harvest through the Food Corporation of India. This type of collecting grains is called buffer stock.
III. Answer the following in five-six sentences each:
1. How is poverty identified in India?
Ans: The poverty line has been used as the main yardstick to measure poverty. At present, depending on the per capita consumption of food, the poverty line is fixed. An individual's food consumption is measured in terms of calorie. In cities, an individual's daily average requirement is 2100 calories, whereas it is 2400 calories in villages. People unable to earn this minimum requirement of calories are identified as people below the poverty line, or the poor.
2. What are the indicators of poverty?
Ans: Sociologists have attempted to identify poverty through
indicators other than income and consumption of food. Those indicators are- level of illiteracy, amount of malnutrition, lack of health care, dearth of employment opportunities: unavailability of hygiene, etc. Nowadays, factors of social ostracization and handicaps of various types are also being considered while determining poverty.
3. Although India has achieved self-sufficiency in the
production of food grains, it has not been able to get rid
of hunger and drought. Why?
Ans: The lack of buying power among the poor, and the shortcomings in the distribution of food grains are some of the reasons. When natural disasters like earthquake, drought, floods, Tsunamis and destruction of crops take place, the consequences will be devastating. In these circumstances, the production of food grains suffers and there is shortage of food. Due to shortage of food, the prices of food grains rise very high. At such times, poor people cannot afford to buy food grains, and hence suffer from starvation. This kind of collective starvation leads to famine.
4. Explain the working of the public distribution system in
Ans: The food grains collected by the Food Corporation of India are distributed to poor people at low prices through the government controlled fair price depots. This is called the public distribution system. Food grains, sugar, kerosene, cooking oil and other essential ingredients are distributed through the fair price depots. These items are sold at rates much lower than the market rates. The government has enabled fair price depots to be opened in almost all villages, towns and cities. There are around 4.7 lakh fair price depots in India today, and around 16 Crore families are benefitting from them.
5. List out the measures taken by the government to
Ans: The measures taken by the government to eradicate poverty are as follows:
(1) Economic development measures. The government is
attempting to achieve economic development through five year plans.
(2) Implementation of specific poverty eradication
programmes like (A) Self employment programmes.
Under this scheme, the integrated rural development
programmes, the Swarnajayanthi Gram Swaudyog Yojana
are undertaken. (B) Wage Employment Programme is
implemented to provide jobs on daily wage basis. (C)
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee
Programme was the most ambitious daily wage Programme ever launched.
(3) Provision of the minimum basic requirement: Under this programme, many measures are taken to improve the life of poor rural mass.
(4) Social Security measures: The protection that the
government provides to the helpless, the aged and the
handicapped among the very poor people.
6. Mention the social security measures being provided to
the poor people.
Ans: Social Security measures: The protection that the government provides to the helpless, the aged and the handicapped among the very poor people is called Social Security; Deserted old people get Old Age allowance every month under 'Sandhya Suraksha Yojana'. Handicapped people and helpless people incapable of doing any work get disability allowance every month. Poor widows get Widow Allowance every month.
7. How has the 'Mahatma Gandhi National employment
Guarantee Programme' helped to eradicate rural
Ans: 'Mahatma Gandhi National Employment Guarantee
Programme' was implemented in 2006. This was the most
ambitious daily wage programme ever launched. Under this programme, from every poor family, member desirous of working are given daily wage work for a minimum of 100 days in a year in order to provide stability in their lives. Those who are poor and are ready to work for low wages should register their names in their gram panchayat under this programme. If the registered job aspirants are not given jobs within 15 days of registration, they will be given the daily unemployment allowance as fixed by the government.