REVOLUTION AND RISE OF NATIONALISM
I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:
1. The 13 colonies established by England on the Atlantic coast was called ______________
2. The representatives of the 13 colonies met in 1774 at ______________
3. Declaration of America's independence was on ______________
4. The writer of Spirit of Laws was ______________
5. The party 'Young Italy' was formed by ______________
6. The philosophy of 'blood and steel' was advocated by ______________
Ans: (1) New English Colonies, (2) Philadelphia, (3) 4th July, (4) Montesquieu, (5) Joseph Mazzini, (6) Otto-van-Bismarek
II. Answer the following questions:
1. Mention the reasons for American War of Independence.
Ans: Some of the reasons for American War of Independence are as follows:
(a) The rise of nationalism among the people of the colonies.
(b) The desire for independence among the colonies.
(c) The effects of the 'Seven Years' war.
(d) The naval regulations.
(e) Influence of writers like Thomas Paine, John Adams, Samuel Adams, John Edward Coke and Benjamin Franklin.
(f) The Quebec regulation.
(g) The Townsend taxes and
(h) The Boston tea party.
2. Explain the significance of the American war of independence.
Ans: The American war of independence acted as an inspiration for the French Revolution. Many of the French who fought assisting the colonial army became leaders of the French revolution. Many of the Spanish and the Portuguese colonies in America got inspired to become free and hence, revolted against their motherland. The new nation called the United States of America was born.
3. How were economic factors responsible for the French revolution?
Ans: The economic factors responsible for the French revolution are France was an agriculture-dominated nation. In spite of advances in agricultural practices, production lagged behind. The yield from land was very low. The fanners were the most affected. Famines were frequent. As a result, there used to be revolts and riots for food. Industries were under the control of trade unions. Due to internal strife and interference from authorities, the development of these unions was sluggish. Hence, productivity was low.
4. What was the role of Garibaldi in Italy's unification?
Ans: Garibaldi is one of the arehitects of Italy's unification. He was a soldier and fighter. He joined the Young Italy part and assumed leadership of the revolution. After that he constituted an army called Red Brigade and with the help of Sardinia, fought with Austria. In 1860, he fought against the twin states of Sicily using his Red Brigade. By conquering the same, he hastened the national integration and pressed for democratic reforms.
5. Who was the arehitect of unification of Germany? Write a note on him.
Ans: Ottoman Bismarek was the arehitect of Germany's unification.
He was the chief minister of the King of Prussia, Williams. He had gained lot of popularity as an ambassador in various nations like Austria, France and Russia. He had the knowledge of their strengths and weaknesses. His ambition was the unification of Germany; He wanted to convert Germany into Prussia. That meant inculcating the culture and traditions, and spread the administrative machinery and military power all over Germany; He built a powerful army on the principle of 'Blood and Steel'. His next aim was to drive out Austria from German states association. The well formed German armies defeated Austria in the year 1866 A.D. Bismarek realized that a war with France was inevitable to gain the 16 German states in the south attached to France. He was successful in merging these states with Germany when Napoleon was defeated by these states when he tried to capture them. Thus Bismarek completed the unification of Germany.