RURAL DEVELOPMENT-10th Standard Social Science Notes

CHAPTER 3

Economics

RURAL DEVELOPMENT

I. Key Points:

  • India is a land of Villages.
  • Mahatma Gandhi said that development of its Villages is the true development of india.
  • Through decentralization , self –reliant , self –sufficient and prosperous Villages can be developed this process was called „Grama Swarajya‟
  • To enable decentralization ,the panchayat Raj system has been brought into practice.
  • A committee of five representatives of the people would carry on the administration. They were referred to as the panchas. Grama panchayat Taluk Panchayat and Zilla Panchayat are the three levels of Panchayat Raj System.

II. Multiple Choice Questions

1. India is a land of

a)Towns and Cities b)States c)Villages d)All the above

2. The word „Panchayat‟ has evolved from the word

a)Pancha b)Panche c)Panchayathi d) None of the above

3. Providing Urban Amenities in Rural Areas is an excellent project conceptualized by

a) Dr. Manmohan Singh b)Pranam Mukharjee

c) P Chidambaram d)Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam

4. “Independence should begin with Village first‟ The above statement was declared by

a)Nelson Mandela b)Mahatma Gandhi

c)Martin Luther King Jr d)Mao Tse Tung

5. Panchayat Raj system or Panchayat Institution in India Comprises of Levels

a)One b)two c)Three d)Four

III. Expansion

1. PURA : Providing Urban Ameniting in Rural Areas.

2. MGNREGP : Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Project.

3. SRSEP : Swarnajayanti Rural Self Employment Project.

4. IAY : Indira Awas Yojana

5. AVHP : Ambedkar –Valmiki Housing Project

6. AY : Ashraya yojana

7. SGY : Suvarna Gramodaya Yojana

IV. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:

1. Mahatma Gandhi said, „The true development of India is the development of its villages‟.

2. After the 73rd Amendment to the Constitution, three levels of panchayat institutions have come into existence.

3. Panchayat institutions operate under democratic principles.

4. Wo men‟s self help gr o ups have been brought into existence in order to bring together poor rural women and make them financially independent.

5. A committee of five representatives of the people would carry on the administration

during the vedic times .They were referred to as the panchas.

6. The panchayat organizations are also known as Rural Local Governments,

7. 68.84% of the population lives in Villages in India.

8. Rural development occupies a very important place in the development of the Indian economy.

V. Answer in one sentence each :

1. Explain the meaning of „Rural Development‟.

In addition to development of agriculture and agriculture-based activities, it encompasses extended development of housing, education, health, hygiene, transport, communication and other essential social and economic amenities, creation of employment opportunities, social welfare etc.

2. What is meant by „Decentralisation of Power‟?

Providing the administrative power, and the responsibility of developing the village to its own people is called administrative decentralization.

3. Name the three levels of panchayat raj institutions.

The three levels of Panchayat institutions are Grama Panchayat, Taluk Panchayat and Zilla Panchayat.

4. Mention any two housing projects.

„Indira Awas Yojana‟

„Ambedkar-Valmiki Housing Project‟

„Ashraya Yojana‟ etc.

5. Which work of women is not considered labour?

The chores that women perform at home are not considered labour and so are not paid any wages.

VI. Answer the following questions in five to six sentences each:

1. How is the economic situation in the rural areas of India?

Poverty has increased among the rural people who depend primarily on agriculture. Under the onslaught of modernization, rural cottage industries are vanishing unable to withstand the competition.Though 60% of the people work in the primary sector, the contribution from this sector to the national income is very less, and is reducing year by year.

2. Explain briefly the significance of rural development.

Rural development occupies a very important place in the development of the Indian economy.

The majority of the population lives in the villages, and is plagued by problems of poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, ill-health, lack of basic amenities etc.

These problems should be tackled through rural development, and rural India should be empowered.

3. Explain Gandhiji‟s concept of „Grama Swarajya‟ in the light of decentralization.

Through decentralization self reliant , self sufficient and prosperous villages can be developed . This process was called “Grama Swarajya” Decentralization puts a stop to all kinds of exploitation , upholds human independence and dignity nurtures human values like compassion and co-operation.

4. What is the role of panchayat raj institutions in rural development?

  • They can help to provide the rural community with basic facilities of roads, drains, drinking water, street lights, toilets etc.
  • More employment opportunities can be provided to the people through nurturing the rural productive activities of agriculture, cattle-rearing, poultry, fishery, social forestry etc. Rural and cottage industries can be improved.
  • Establishment of food processing units can be encouraged. Through the Panchayats, seminars, conferences and training programmes can be organized for all the above activities.
  • Various programmes like „Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Project‟,(MGNREGP) „Swarnajayanti Grama swarajgar Yojana‟ (SGSY)‟etc. for generation of employment and alleviation of poverty can be implemented effectively through panchayat institutions.
  • Various housing programmes like „Indira Awas Yojana‟, „Ambedkar-Valmiki Housing Programme‟, „Ashraya Yojana‟ etc. can be implemented, and all shelterless people provided shelter. Through „Suvarna Gramodaya Yojana‟, basic facilities can be enhanced.
  • By identifying the old people, the disabled, widows, mentally retarded people etc., it can be ensured that all the facilities from the social welfare programmes of the government reach them promptly.

5. Define “Grama Swarajya”.

Through Decentralization , self –reliant , self –sufficient and prosperous villages can be developed .This process was called „Grama Swaraja”

6. What is meant by „Panchas‟?

A committee of five representatives of the people would carry on the administration during the vedic times .They were referred to as the panchas.

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