SOCIAL PROBLEMS-10th Standard Social Science Notes

CHAPTER – 4

Sociology

SOCIAL PROBLEMS

1. „Prohibition of Child Labour Act‟ has been brought into force in the year

a )1983 b)1985 )1984 d) 1986

2. Article 24 of our Constitution declares that employing children below for work is an offence.

a) 18 years b)21 years c)14 years d)16 years

3. In Indian system of marriage, the dowry is given by the

a)Bride to the bridegroom b) both of them to each other

c)Bridegroom to the bride d) None of the above

4. The central government has enacted „Dowry Prohibition Act‟ in the year

a)1986 b)1994 c)1961 d)1983

5. Any person who gives, takes or forces to give dowry can be imprisoned for

and fined_ /- penalty.

a)6 years & 16,000 b)5 years & 15,000

c)4 years & 14,000 d)1 year & 10,000

6. Dowry deaths have been brought under the purview of

a) Indian Criminal Procedure code  b) Indian legal Procedure code

c)Indian regulation Procedure code d)Indian supervision Procedure code

7. “Prohibition of Pre-natal gender Determination Test Act‟ was enacted in the year

a)1992 b)1996 c)1994 d)1998

8. Pick out the option, which is not the main reason for rise in female foeticide.

a)Burden to dowry b)Literacy c)Desire for male child d)Poverty

II. Fill in the Blanks

1. Article 24 of the constitution prohibits employing children for work.

2. The year „Prohibition of child Labour Act‟ came into practice is 1986

3. The „National Policy‟ was framed in 1987__

4. The „Prohibition of Dowry‟ Act first came into effect in 1961

5. The labour undertaken by minor children is called Child Labour

6. According to 2011 census, these are 12.6 million children who have been forced to work as labourers in houses.

7. In the name of dowry, women are being abused and subjected to Violence torture and murder

8. The dowry cases can be tried only as non-bailable and non-negotiable offences.

9. „The child labour Prohibition and control Act has been enacted in the year 1986

10. The Prohibition of Pre-natal Gender Determination Test Act was enacted in the year 1994

III. Match the following

1. Prohibition of Pre-natal a. 1961 d. 1994

Gender Determination Test Act b. 1986

2. Prohibition of Dowry Act c. Women ratio less a. 1961

3. Prohibition of child labour Act b. 1987 b. 1986

4. According to the 2001 Censes d.1994 c. Women ratio is less

f. 1983

IV Answer the following Questions

1. Mention any two social problems plaguing India.

Dowry and Violence on Women

2. What is meant by „Child labour‟?

According to the constitution, „Child labourers are those who are aged below 14 years and work in order to earn money‟. Normally, the labour undertaken by minor, Children is called „Child Labour‟.

3. What is the meaning of „Female foeticide‟?

When the foetus is that of a girl and the parents do not want a girl baby to be born,

they kill it in the womb itself. This is known as „female foeticide‟.

4. What is meant by „female infanticide‟?

“The inhuman practice of killing the female baby after it is born is known as female infanticide‟.

5. Mention the causes for the problem of child Labour.

  • Poverty
  • Domestic conflicts
  • Divorce
  • Domestic violence
  • Excessive control
  • Greed of industrialists
  • Illiteracy
  • Kidnapping of children and pledging them etc., are the causes behind child labour and its increase.

6. What are the consequences of child labour?

The people who extract work from children throughout the day, do not pay any attention to their mental, emotional, educational or medical needs. Instead, they harass them physically and mentally.

7. Explain the measures for eradicating the problem of child labour.

  • The Central government has launched a programme called „Rehabilitation Welfare Fund of Child Labourers‟ through which their educational, medical and fundamental needs can be fulfilled, and their exploitation stopped.
  • Prohibition of Child Labour Act (1986) was brought into force, in order to stop employment of children.
  • Industrialists who violent this law, will have to mandatory contribute Rs.20,000/- per child labourer to the welfare Fund.
  • Article 24 of our Constitution declares that employing children below 14 years for work is a cognizable offence.
  • It warns against employing children in hazardous industrial units.

8. What are the evils effects of dowry system?

  • Dowry diminishes women‟s self-respect, dignity and stature. It leads to domestic conflicts.
  • It also creates animosity between men and women. Due to this evil, immorality and violence increases.
  • Family relationships suffer. Families of brides get oppressed under financial constraints.
  • Greed for dowry is leading to deception in the name of marriage.
  • In order to escape from the dowry menace, people are resorting to child marriage.
  • Female foeticide and female infanticide are increasing. The number of divorces is also rising.

9. What are the solutions for the problem of dowry?

  • In order to legally eradicate the dowry system, the Central government enacted a “Prohibition of Dowry Act‟ in 1961.
  • Those who violate this law are fined rs.5000/- penalty or sent to jail for 6 months. Sometimes both the penalties are imposed.
  • This Act was amended in 1986 and made stricter. According to the amendment, any person who gives, takes or forces to give dowry can be imprisoned for 5 years and fined 15,000/- penalty.
  • Dowry deaths have been brought under the purview of “Indian Penal Code‟ and „Indian Criminal Procedure Code‟. They can be tried only non-bailable and non- negotiable offences.

V. EXTRA QUESTIONS:

1. What is a problematic situation?

A state of ill-health of a society can be called a problematic situation.

2. What is called a social problem?

A situation that threatens society‟s rules and norms, or a state which endangers societal welfare can be called a social problem. A social problem is a situation where there is no social adjustment.

3. What are the problems afflicting the Indian society?

  • Excessive population
  • Poverty
  • Unemployment
  • Beggary
  • Juvenile delinquency
  • Crimes
  • Problem of child labour
  • Corruption
  • Exploitation of women
  • Dowry harassment
  • Disturbed youth etc.,

4. Explain briefly about Harassment of women.

  • One of the innumerable problems being faced by Indian women is harassment.
  • In spite of their progress in various fields like education, economics, politics and industry, there is violence inflicted upon women.
  • Rape, violence, suppression, dowry harassment, physical and mental harassment, forced abortions, use of vulgar language etc. are some of the harassments on women both inside and outside the house.

5. What is Dowry?

Any kind of property, Jewellery or gift given to the bridegroom at the time of marriage, either before or after marriage is known as „Dowry‟.

6. What are the causes for female foeticide?

  • Poverty
  • Burden to dowry
  • Ignorance
  • Anti-women ideas
  • Desire for male progeny etc.

7. What are the measures to Eradicate child labour?

  • Article 24 of our Constitution declares that employing children below 14 years for work is a cognizable offence.
  • The Government had undertaken many measures to eradicate child labour.
  • It launched the National Child Labour project(NCLP) in 1988.
  • Bal Mandirs are being set up for the education of such children at Taluk and District levels.
  • These children are being provided free food, shelter, etc.
  • Under the „Sarvashikshana Abhiyan‟ project, child labourers in Karnataka are being brought to school under the programme „From drudgery to school‟, and they are being given free education.
  • The Right to Education Act of 2009 guarantees compulsory free education to children of 6 years to 14 years.
  • As per this Act, 25% seats in private schools are reserved for child labourers, backward class children, scheduled caste and scheduled tribe children, and children with special needs.
  • The Union Government implemented a „National Policy‟ in 1987 for the elfare of child labourers. In 1988, it launched a Project for Child Labourers‟ Welfare. In 2006, the government brought into force the „Child Labour Eradicationand Rehabilitation Act‟.

POINTS TO REMEMBER:

  • A state of ill-health of a society can be called a problematic situation.
  • A situation that threatens society‟s rules and norms, or a state which endangers societal welfare can be called a social problem.
  • Normally, the labour undertaken by minor, Children is called „Child Labour‟.
  • The Central government has launched a programme called „Rehabilitation Welfare Fund of Child Labourers‟ through which their educational, medical and fundamental needs can be fulfilled, and their exploitation stopped.
  • Prohibition of Child Labour Act (1986) was brought into force, in order to stop employment of children.
  • Industrialists who violent this law, will have to mandatory contribute Rs.20,000/- per child labourer to the welfare Fund.
  • Any kind of property, Jewellery or gift given to the bridegroom at the time of marriage, either before or after marriage is known as „Dowry‟.
  • „Prohibition of Dowry Act‟ in 1961
  • Those who violate this law are fined Rs.5000/- penalty or sent to jail for 6 months. Sometimes both the penalties are imposed.
  • Dowry deaths have been brought under the purview of „Indian Penal Code‟ and „Indian Criminal Procedure Code‟. They can be tried only non-bailable and non- negotiable offences.
  • When the foetus is that of a girl and the parents do not want a girl baby to be born, they kill it in the womb itself. This is known as „female foeticide‟.
  • „The inhuman practice of killing the female baby after it is born is known as female infanticide‟.

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