The Birth of new Religions
I Complete the following sentences by using suitable Words in the blanks.
1. The FIRST Jain Tirthankara was __________
2. Vardhamana was born at _______
3. Mahaveera attained _________in his 42nd year.
4. Mahaveera attained Nirvana at _______in his 72nd year.
5. The original name of Gautama Buddha was ______
6. Buddha delivered his first sermon at _____________
7. The first sermon of Buddha is called _____________
Ans: 1- Rishabha 2 - Kundala 3-enlightenment (Kaivalya) 4 - Pavapuri 5 - Siddhartha 6-deer park in Saranath 7.Dharma Chakra Pravarthana
II. Answer in brief the following questions:
1. Write in detail about Mahaveera's life.
Ans: Vardhmana was born in Kundala grama village in Vaishali. At the age of 30 he set out in search of truth and renounced his family and house. He wandered for twelve years in this quest. He meditated and punished his body by fasting. He achieved enlightenment at the age of 42. He controlled his senses and achieved power over comfort and pain so he was called 'Mahaveer' and became a 'Jina'. He spent the rest of his life (thirty years) preaching his knowledge to the people. He attained nirvana in his 72nd year in Pavapuri of Bihar.
2. What are the triratnas?
Ans: Mahaveer preached three principles of behaviour. They are Samyaggyan, Samyagdarshan and Samyagcharite. These are called triratnas.
3. Name the sects among the Jains.
Ans: There are two sects among the Jains. They are Swetahmbars and Digambars.
3. What is the middle path?
Ans: Buddha realized that desire was the root cause of sorrow. Only by the liberation of desires could a peaceful life be led. Buddha preached eight fold paths for eliminating desires. This is called the Middle path.
4. Who were the people influenced by the new religion?
Ans: Wealthy merchants, artisans and common people were influenced by the new religion.
6. Write a note on the Tripitikas.
Ans: After Buddha's death, his followers collected his teachings and tradition in the form of Tripitikas. These are Vinaya, Dharma and Abhidhamma pitakas. Over a period of time, disagreements developed in the teachings and different branches of Buddhism sprang up. Thus Hinayana, Mahayana, Vajrayana and their sutras came into being.