THE MOGHULS AND THE MARATHAS.
I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:
1. The founder of the Moghul dynasty was ______________
2. The most famous emperor among the Moghuls was ______________
3. The king who built the TajMahal at Agra was ______________
4. The Moghul emperor who established the new religion Din-e-Ilahi was ______________
5. Shivaji's mother was ______________
Ans: (l) Babar; (2) Akbar; (3) Shahjahan; (4) Akbar; (5) Jijabai.
II. Answer the following questions by discussing with your group:
I. Describe the military achievements of Babar.
Ans: Babar defeated the Delhi Sultan lbrahim Lodhi in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 A.D. and established the Moghul dynasty in India. Over a period of four years, he defeated Rana Sangramsingh of Mewad, the Rajput king Medinarayana of Chanderi and Ibrahim Lodhi's brother, Mohammed Lodhi. Babar conquered Panipat, Goghra and Kanwa He established Moghul rule over a vast area in North India.
2. Compare and contrast the present-day administrative system with that of Sher Shah.
Ans: Sher Shah established an efficient administration.
1) He divided his kingdom into four main departments.
2) He was the first ruler who constructed four main highways that connected the major cities. On either side of the highway, shade-giving trees were planted and 1700 sarais were constructed.
3) The land in the kingdom had been classified as excellent, average and bad according to their level of fertility. The farmers gave part of their income as land tax to the government.
4) If there was damage to crops during the movement of troops, the government compensated the farmers. All these features of the administration of Shershah are similar to the present administration.
3. Name the areas won by Akbar.
Ans: Akbar defeated Hemu in the Second Battle of Panipar. Akbar conquered Malva, Jaipur, Gondavan, Chittor, Ranatharnbhor, Kalinjar, Gujarat and Bengal. Akbar fight against Rana Pratap (The Battle of Haldighat) and emerged victorious. The remaining states of Kashmir, Sindh, Orissa, Baluchistan, Khandhar and Ahmednagar came under Akbar.
4. Describe the contributions of Shahjahan to art and arehitecture.
Ans: ShahJahan was called a great builder. He constructed the famous, immensely valuable ruby-studded Peacock throne. He constructed the TajMahal in Agra which is one of the Seven Wonders of the World. He constructed the Red Fort at Delhi. He built Akbari Mahal, Jehangiri Mahal. He built forts in Lahore and Allahabad similar to the one at Agra. Hence, his period is referred to as the 'Golden Age of Moghal Art and Arehitecture.
5. Describe Shivaji's system of administration.
Ans: Shivaji had organized an efficient administrative system in his vast kingdom. He had divided his kingdom into many provinces. They were called Swaraj and Moghal areas. There were minsters known as Asthapradhans in the central government to assist the king. In addition to them, there were other officials. Province, district and village were the administrative units.
6. Explain the achievements of Bajirao I.
Ans: Bajirao I was an unparalleled warrior. He conquered, Malwa and gained the authority to collect Chouth and Sardeshmukhi taxes. He got a vast stretch between the Narmada and Chambal rivers and 50 lakh rupees as compensation tor defeating the Moghals in a battle near Bhopal. He conquered Salcet and Basin from the Portuguese and Janjira from the Siddhis He not only ruled efficiently but also regained the glory of the Maratha Empire.