VIJAYANAGAR AND THE BAHAMANI KINGDOM
I. Complete the following sentences by using suitable words in the blanks.
1. Vijayanagar Empire was established in the year__________ from ______________
2. The poetess who wrote Madhuravijaya is ___________
3. Praudhadevaraya's minister was ___________
4. The king who wrote Amukta Malya in Telugu was ___________
5. The king who constructed a Madrasa at Bidar was ___________
6. The king who wrote Kitab-E-Navarasa was ___________
Ans: (1) 1336 A.D., Hakka & Bukka. (2) Gangadevi; (3) Lakkanna Dandesha; (4) Krishnadevaraya; (5) Mohammad Gawan; (6) Ibrahim Adil Shah II
II. Answer in brief the following questions:
1. Name the four dynasties who ruled Vijayanagar Empire.
Ans: Four dynasties who ruled Vijayanagar Empire are –
(1) Sangama, (2) Saluva, (3) Tuluva, and (4) Araveedu.
2. What are the achievements of Devaraya II?
Ans: Devaraya II was the most king in the Sangama dynasty. He had earned the title of 'Elephant Hunter'. His achievements are as follows –
(a) He defeated the king Gajapati Kapilendra of Orissa and seized Kondaveedu.
(b) He expanded his kingdom upto Krishna river in the north east by suppressing the regional leader of the border.
(c) He defeated the Kerala state and received royalties from Kerala and Srilanka. Hence he came to be known as Dakshinapathada Chakravarthi (the Emperor of the South).
(d) He chased the traditional foe Ahmed Shah of Bahamani till Bijapur and occupied Mudgal and Bankapura.
(e) His commander, Lakkanna Dandesha, took up a successful naval victory.
3. What were the problems Krishnadevaraya had to face when he ascended the throne?
Ans: When Krishnadevaraya came to power, the kingdom was besieged by various complex internal and external problems.
(a) The Europeans, who had arrived through new sea routes, had established colonies.
(b) The Moghuls of the north were trying to expand their kingdom in the southern region.
(c) The five Shahi kingdoms of the Bahamani dynasty became powerful Sultanates and plunged into war against Krishnadevaraya. And
(d) The kings of Ummatthur and Orissa were a constant source of threat.
4. What are the contributions of Vijayanagar to the economic system and society?
Ans: Economic system: Vijayanagar was economically prosperous
(a) Land tax was the main source of revenue for the kingdom.
(b) Farmers gave 1f4 of their income to the government as tax.
(c) Professional tax, revenue tax, road tax, market tax, commercial tax, import and export taxes and tributes from the vassals were other forms of revenue to the kingdom.
(d) Agriculture was the backbone of the economy. Many important food and cash crops were grown.
(e) Many wells, tanks and canals were constructed for irrigation and agriculture.
(f) There was great progress in the field of industries and commerce.
(g) Spices like pepper, cloves and cardamom, salt petre, iron ore, diamonds, granulated sugar, must, sandal perfume etc. were exported.
(h) There were many textile industries.
(i) Coins of different denominations like gold coins, gadyaana, pagoda, silver coins and copper coins were in use. There were diamonds, iron ore centers, Sapphires used to be available in plenty.
G) Countries like Arab, China and Portugal had trade relations with the Vijayanagar empire.
(a) The society was based on the 4-tiered caste system. However, there was also occupation-based caste system.
(b) There were many skilled artisans, blacksmiths, bell-metal smiths, carpenters, weavers and cobblers in the society.
(c) The practice of child marriage, sati and devadasi were prevalent.
(d) Though monogamy was the common practice, kings and rich people had many wives.
(e) Women enjoyed a dignified status in society.
(t) Holi and Deepavali used to be celebrated with pomp and glory at Hampi under royal patronage.
5. Describe the art and arehitecture of the Vijayanagar period.
Ans: The Vijayanagar emperors were known as great patrons of arehitecture. They continued the arehitectural style of Chalukyas, Cholas, and Hoysalas.The unique feature was the construction of huge auditorium and marriage halls. The temples had huge towers (rayagopur(a), leaf-shaped arehes and platforms. In this art, more than ornamentation, the qualities of grandeur, awe and elegance have been given importance. Rough granite stone was used for construction of these structures.
The temples were built in Hampi, Shringeri, Tirupati, Lepakshi, Karkala, Bhatkal, kanchi, Srishaila, Kolar etc. The most important temple was Vidyashankara temple at Shrigeri which has unique structure. The Vijaya Vitthala temple of Hampi is known for its magnificent arehitectural beauty. The saptaswara musical pillars, huge marriage halls and the stone chariot have
enhanced the beauty of this temple. The most ancient temple at Hampi, the Virupaksha temple has a vast courtyardlhall. It has many pillars with sculptures and decorative ceilings.
6. How was Mohammad Gawan a very good prime minister of the Bahamani kingdom?
Ans: As a Prime Minister of the Bahamani kingdom, Mohammed Gawan took the Bahamani kingdom to great heights through his efficient administration and victories. Gawan conquered Konkan, Goa and Belgaum. Later, He invaded Orissa and conquered Kondaveedu. In the year 1481 A.D., he invaded Kanchi and plundered its huge wealth.
7. Describe the administration and taxation system during the rule of the Bahamani sultans.
(a) There were three levels of administration namely Central, Provincial and Village. Among these, there was revenue, judicial and military administration too.
(b) The Sultan was the chief of the central administration.
(c) The cabinet was called Majlis E-Ilwith.
(d) Top officials, commandants, ulemas and amins were friends and relatives of the Sultan.
(e) Gawan converted the existing 4 provinces into 8 units and these provinces were administered by 15 governments.
(t) The governments were divided into paraganas. Kotwal, Deshmukh and Desai were the administrators of the paraganas. The village was the final independent unit of
(a) Land tax was the main source of income for the kingdom.
(b) Amir-E-Jumlas were the head of the revenue authorities.
(c) ⁱ⁄₃ to ½ of the agricultural produce was collected as land tax.
(d) There were 50 kinds of taxes including house, mines, tobacco grasslands, trade and employment.
8. Explain the education, art and arehitecture of the Bauamani sultans.
Ans: The educational policy of the Adil Shahis was to propagate Islamic culture. There were schools known as maktabs. They were under the control of mosques. The students in the maktabs were taught the alphabet, religion, law, poetry and rhetoric. The madras as were centers of higher education. Mohammed Gawan who was a scholar himself, established a madras a (college) at Bidar to encourage study of the Islamic religion and law. It had a library with around 3000 manuscripts. The college was a lodge for students, teachers, and orthodox people. Astronomy, grammar, mathematics, philosophy and political science were studied in this college.
Art and arehitecture: The Bahamani sultans developed lndo Sareenic style of arehitecture. The Jamia mosque built by Ali Adil Shah I is prominent monument even today. Ibrahim Roza, Gol Gumbaz, Gagan Mahal and Asar Mahals are the important world famous monuments. The Gol Gumbaz, at Bijapur is one
of the greatest structures in the world. It has an area of 1800 sq ft. There are 7 storied minarets in the four corners of the building. There is a huge dome in the center. The unique feature of this dome is that is one whispers standing on one side of the dome, it can be heard clearly on the other side. It is the biggest Dome in India.