WATER RESOURCES-10th Standard Social Science Notes




Key Points

  • Damoder river is called Sarrow of Bengal.
  • The hightest multipurpose river valley projects the Bhakra Nangal project.
  • Bhakra Nangal dams are constructed across the river Sutlej in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Bhakra dam (226mt) is the highest dam in Asia.
  • The reservoir of Bhakra nangal dam is „Govinda sager‟.
  • The river kosi is called the Sorrow of Bihar.
  • The joint project of India Nepal is Kosi Project.
  • Kosi project constructed at Hanuman Nagar on the border of India and Nepal.
  • The river Mahanadi is called the sorrow of Orissa.
  • The Hirakud project (4.801mts) has the longest dam in India.
  • The Hirakud dam constructed near Sambalpur in Orissa.
  • The reservoir of Tungabhadra project is called Pampa Sagar.
  • The project is constructed across the river Krishna near Almatti in Bagalkot district is upper Krishna.
  • The project is constructed across the river Krishna near nandikonda village in Andhra Pradesh is Nagrajuna Sagara project.

Multi River Valley Project

  • The Hirakud Project – River Mahanadi – Sambalpur in Orissa – Sorrow of Orissa – longest dam in India (4801 mts)
  • Kosi Project – Kosi river – Hanuman nagar on the borders of India and Nepal – Sorrow of Bihar
  • Nagarjuna Sagar Project – Krishna river – Nandikonda (A.P) – Largest multipurpose river valley project in India
  • Bhakranagal Project – river Sutlej – in Himachal Pradesh – highest multi purpose river vally project in India in Asia (226 mts)
  • Damodara river valley – First multipurpose river valley project constructed after independence - Sorrow of Bengal – West Bengal and Bihar
  • Upper Krishna project – Alamatti near Bijapur District –Lal Bahadur Shastri Reservoir
  • Tungabhadra project – Tungabhadra river – Mallpur ,Hospet near Bellary – Karnataka, A. P. Pampa sagara Reservoir

I Choose the correct answer from the following alternatives:

1. `Sorrow of Orissa' is

a) River Mahanadi b) River Kosi

c) River Damodar d) River Sutlej

2. `Sorrow of Bihar' is

a) River Sutlej b) River Mahanadi c) River Damodar d) River Kosi

3. is the Highest multi-Purpose river valley Project of India.

a) Kosi Project b) Hirakud

c) Bhakra nangal d) Damodar river Valley

4. `Damodar' river valley Project was a joint venture of former Bihar and

a) West Bengal b) Jharkand

c) Chattisgarh d) Madhya Pradesh

5. river was called `Sorrow of Bengal'.

a) Ganga b) Brahmaputra c) Yamuna d) Damodar

II. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:

1. Damodar river was called, Sorrow of bengal

2. Kosi river is called Sorrow of Bihar.

3. Biggest irrigation project of Karnataka is Upper Krishna

4. Hydroelectric project is constructed at Shivanasamudra on the river Cauvery.

5. Hirakud project is built across Mahanadi river.

6. Collection of rain water is called Rain water harvesting

7. Nagarjuna Sagar Project is constructed across the river Krishna

8. Tungabhadra' Project is a joint Venture of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

III. Match the following projects in „A‟ with states „B‟:

1. Bhakra Nangal Project a. Bihar b. Himachal Pradesh

2. Tungabhadra Project b. Himachal Pradesh c. Karnataka

3. Hirakud Dam c. Karnataka d. Orissa

4. Kosi Project d. Orissa a. Bihar


1. Bhakranangal -a. Karnataka& Andhrapradesh b.

2. Tungabhadra -b. Punjab, Haryana , Rajastan a

3. Damodar River vally -c. India & Nepal d.

4. Kosi -d. Bihar &West Bengal c.

IV Answer the following after discussing them in groups:

1. What is irrigation?

Irrigation means supply of water to agriculture from canals, wells and tanks artificially or manually

2. What are the types of irrigation?

1. Well irrigation

2. Canal irrigation

3. Tank irrigation.

3. What is multi-purpose river valley project? What are its objectives?

India has undertaken the construction of many river valley projects for the maximum uitilisation of river water resources. These projects have other purposesbesides providing water for agricultural use. Such projects are called multi- purpose river valley projects.

The main aims of these projects are:

1. providing irrigation facility;

2. production of hydro-electric power;

3. prevention of floods;

4. creating facility for water transportation;

5. providing water for domestic and industrial use;

6. preventing soil erosion;

7. developing fisheries;

8. enhancing forest wealth.

4. Write a short note on Bhakra Nangal project.

  • It is the highest multi-purpose valley projects of India.
  • This is the joint venture between Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan state.
  • Dams are constructed at Bhakra and Nangal of Himachal Pradesh across rthe Sutlej river.
  • The dam at Bhakra is the higest (226 mts) in project has a canal network of about 3402 kms and provides irrigation to 14.6 lakh hectares.
  • Delhi and Himachal Pradesh have benefitted from this project by way of getting irrigation and hydro-electric power.
  • The reservoir created by this dam is called „Govindasagar‟.

5. Name the hydro-electric power projects of Karnataka.

Shivanasamudra, Tungabhadra, Jog, Bhadra, Alamatti, Kali (Supa Dam).

6. Rain water harvesting is compulsory today‟. Why?

  • Water is very precious. Although India has vast water resource, it is most unevenly distributed.
  • Rainfall is confined to the rainy season.
  • Even in areas of heavy rainfall, water shortage is seen during the summers.
  • The only solution to the drought condition prevailing in India is „Rain Water Harvesting‟.
  • Collection of rain water is called “Rain Water Harvesting”.

7. What is National Power Grid?

India generates power from various sources. All the states do not have sufficient electric power supply at all times. Hence, to supply power from surplus states to deficit states,a National Power Grid is established. With its help, excess power from any state can be supplied to any other power deficit state

8. Make a list of important hydro electric power generation centers of India.

1. Karnataka: Shivanasamudra, Tungabhadra, Jog, Bhadra, Alamatti, Kali (Supa Dam).

2. Andhra Pradesh: Nagarjunasagar, Srisailam project, Ramapadasagar Project, Sileru project.

3. Tamil Nadu: Mettur project, Paikara project, Periyar project, Kundha project, Moyar project, Kodayar project etc.

4. Madhya Pradesh: Banasagar, Gandhisagar, Panchyojana.

5. Maharashtra: Tata hydro-electric power project, Beera project, Vaitarana project, Koyna project.

6. Orissa : Hirakud project, Kolaja project, Rangali project, Naraja project.

7. Bihar : Kosi project, Suvarnarekha project, Tawa project.

8. Gujarat : Kakrapara project, Kadana project, Ukai project.

9. What is flood canals?

Water is drawn directly from the river through canals without the help of any dams. When the river level is high the excess water passes through the canals. These are called flood canals.

10. Which are the two types of water harvestings ?Mention methods of water


There are two types of water Harvesting :

1. Collection of water at the place of rainfall. eg.roof tops of houses and buildings

2. Collection of flowing rainwater eg. building bunds and collecting water.

  • Using the water collected from roof tops reduces the dependence on the public water supply.
  • Digging ponds in agricultural areas and collecting water.
  • Building check dams to prevent the flow of water and allowing it to percolate to increase of the ground water table. This is called recharging.
  • Not only individuals, even communities can engage themselves in constructing bunds or digging small ponds to collect the rain water.

11. What are the aims of multi purpose river valley projects?

  • The aims of multi-purpose river valley projects are
  • They provide water for irrigation.
  • They help to generate hydro-electric power
  • They control floods.
  • They prevent soil erosion
  • They help to develop inland fisheries
  • They provide inland navigation.
  • They provide water for industries
  • They provide recreational facilities and water for domestic use.
  • They also help a forestation.

12. Well irrigation is the most Important type of irrigation In India how?

Well irrigation: Well irrigation is the most important types of irrigation in India. It provides water to large areas of agricultural land. Supplying ground water by digging or drilling wells is called well irrigation. Well irrigation is more useful in low rainfall regions. Construction and maintenance of wells is easier. Well irrigation becomes essential where the canals and tanks are not available.

13. River Damodar was called “Sorrow of Bengal”.

This river was causing large scale destruction to life and property in West Bengal and, as such, it was called „Sorrow of Bengal‟.

14. Difference between Flood Canal and perennial Canal.

Flood Canal Perennial Canal
Water is drawn directly from the river through canals without the help of any dams. When the river level is high the excess water passes through the canals. These are called flood canals. Dams are constructed across the rivers and  water is stored in the reservoirs. This water is provided for agriculture through canals,  which are called Perenmial canals.

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