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Work and Economic Life-10th Standard Social Science Notes

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CHAPTER – 2

Sociology

WORK AND ECONOMIC LIFE

I. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS:

1. Division of labour has helped people to work in various fields and earn

profit.

a)Social b)Religious c)Political d)Economic

2. In modern days, the class system created by division of labour is caused by

a)Discrimination b)Specialization c)Industrialization d)Remuneration

3. Any physical activity which leads to the gain of material benefit is called

a)Paid work b)Team work c)Unpaid work d) Social work

4. Why any activity undertaken for self-satisfaction cannot be called Work? Because it is

a)With material gain b) With material loss

c)Without material gain d) Without material loss

5. The „Equal Wages Act‟ has been enacted in the year

a)1976 b)1974 c)1975 d) 1973

6. The discrimination in remuneration given to women is nothing but

a)Unemployment b)Poverty c)Exploitation d)Division of labour

7. The major problem that is haunting the country‟s economic progress & social

structure is

a)Robbery b)Deception c)Prostitution d) Unemployment

8. Workers who get fixed wages, paid leave, Pension and medical facilities come under

a)Unorganized workers b) Organized workers

c)Social workers d) Team workers

9. What type of workers who are not under governmental control?

a)Unorganized workers b)Organized workers c)Paid workers d) None of the above

10. The work of Organized workers is not bound by any

a) Rules b)Pension facilities c)Fixed wages d)Unfixed wages

II. Fill in the Blanks

1. Division of labour leads to specialization

2. Workers without special training are called unorganized workers

3. Workers who have special training and expertise are called organized workers

4. Labour is related to the external purpose of material benefit and involves effort.

5. In modern days class system was created by industrialization

6. Who are working in specific fields which are governed by legal rules and regulation are called organized workers

III. Answer the following Questions

1. What is “Division of labour‟?

Division of labour means work being done by people depending on their interests, tastes, abilities, age, expertise, skills and gender.

2. What is “Paid Work‟?

Any physical activity which leads to the gain of material benefit is called paid work.

3. What is the meaning of „Unemployment‟?

Unemployment means inability to get work in spite of proper age, ability and interest. Those who are willing to work but are denied an opportunity to do so are called unemployment.

4. What are the reasons for unemployment?

Shortage of qualified people, physical inability, over-population, mechanization, strikes and closures of factories are causes for unemployment.

5. What are the types of unemployment?

  • Semi – unemployment
  • Hidden unemployment
  • Technical unemployment
  • Intermittent unemployment
  • Optional unemployment
  • Unemployment of the educated and uneducated unemployment.

6. Explain the nature of discrimination at work.

  • Although both men and women are engaged in work, their jobs may not be same.
  • In most countries of the world including India, men are offered better jobs. Similarly, higher responsibilities and remuneration are also extended.
  • Women get lesser responsibilities and remuneration. Only in recent years, the discrimination in employment opportunities to women is decreasing.
  • Nowadays, women are taking up employment in huge numbers. However, there is discrimination in the remuneration given to them. Though they do same kind of work as men, the fact that they are being paid is nothing but exploitation.
  • To put an end to this problem, the Central Government has enacted Equal Wages Act in 1976. In the organized sectors of major cities, this sort of discrimination is coming down.
  • Even the agricultural sector practices discrimination based on gender, age and ability. Here too, there is inequality in the payment of wages.
  • As literacy is slowly improving, this kind of discrimination is coming down.

7. What are the measures for removal of unemployment?

  • Population control
  • Encouragement to cottage industries
  • Agricultural development
  • Industrial development
  • Educational reforms
  • Five-year plans
  • Encouragement to vocational education
  • Rural development
  • Employment – guarantee programs etc.,
  • In recent years, information technology has made significant progress in the country resulting in innumerable employment opportunities in the service sector.

8. What are the differences between organized and unorganized workers?

Organized Workers

  • Work in specific fields which are governed by legal rules and regulations.
  • Every employee‟s work is subject to specific terms and conditions.
  • The workers enjoy facilities of specialization, training, talent, experience and educational qualification.
  • Employee‟s day to day transactions are recorded in written form.
  • They get fixed wages, allowances, paid leave, and pension facilities.
  • They get medical facility. They have specific hours of work.
  • They work in various areas which are subject to the rules and regulations of the government.

Unorganized workers

  • Work in areas which are not governed by specific rules and regulations or unions.
  • Lead their lives by earning daily wages or material benefit in any other form.
  • Very vast, it is not under governmental contract.
  • The work of unorganized workers is not bound by any rules or regulations.
  • They get only wages for their work without any additional facilities or medical help.
  • They are denied job security, fixed wages and allowances.
  • Unorganized workers were harassed by enter pruners.

9. What are the effects of unemployment?

  • Unemployment leads to poverty,
  • ill-health,
  • crimes,
  • corruption,
  • family disintegration,
  • cheating,
  • deception,
  • robbery,
  • prostitution etc.,

10. What is labour?

Labour is an act performed to achieve a particular goal. If an individual is able, through the exercise of his energy or efforts, to get economic benefit or any other benefit in material form, it is called labour.

11. What do you mean by unpaid work?

  • Activities indulged in without any definite purpose, but which give mental satisfaction are called unpaid work.
  • Why government has introduced Equal Wages Act?
  • Though women do exactly the same kind of work as men, the fact that they are being paid less is nothing but exploitation. To put an end to this problem, the Central Government has enacted Equal Wages Act in 1976.

POINTS TO REMEMBER:

  • Division of labour means work being done by people depending on their interests, tastes, abilities, age, expertise, skills and gender.
  • Division of labour leads to specialization.
  • In modern days class system was created by industrialization.
  • Labour is related to the external purpose of material benefit and involves effort.
  • Any physical activity which leads to the gain of material benefit is called paid work.
  • Activities indulged in without any definite purpose, but which give mental satisfaction are called unpaid work.
  • Unemployment means inability to get work in spite of proper age, ability and
  • interest, those who are willing to work but are denied an opportunity to do so, are called unemployment.
  • 1976 - Equal Wages Act
  • People working in specific fields which are governed by legal rules and regulations are called organized workers.
  • People working in areas which are not governed by specific rules and regulations and lead their lives by daily earning wages or material benefit in any other form, are called unorganized workers.
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3 Responses to "Work and Economic Life-10th Standard Social Science Notes"

rvsrsankar said...

it is very useful notes for us,thank u so much for uploading

Anonymous said...

Tq it's good

Anonymous said...

Tq it's good

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